Biography and History

From its modest origins as a single room in Nassau Hall, the Princeton University Library has grown to become one of the foremost university libraries in the world. With collections totaling over 12 million volumes, manuscripts, and nonprint items spread across fifteen buildings, the Princeton University Library system serves not only the Princeton University community but the world at large.

The genesis of the Princeton University Library is nearly contemporaneous with the founding of the University itself. As early as 1750 small gifts of books had been made to the College by concerned benefactors and in 1754, only two years before the fledgling institution's relocation from Newark to Princeton, royal governor of New Jersey Jonathan Belcher donated his entire collection of 474 volumes. Even at this early point the Trustees clearly considered the acquisition and maintenance of a suitable library to be of a high priority, going so far as to earmark space in the new home of the College (the soon to be built Nassau Hall) as a sizable library room.

The formative years of the Library were marked by a steady growth in the size and breadth of the collections. By the time the first catalog of the Library's holdings was compiled by President Samuel Davies in 1760, the college could count 1,281 volumes in the second floor library room. The introduction of this initial catalogue laid forth a doctrine which would define the ethos of the Princeton University Library for the next 250 years. Said Davies, "A large and well-sorted Collections of Books on the various Branches of Literature, is the most ornamental and useful Furniture of a College and the most proper and valuable Fund with which it can be endowed." The philosophical leanings of Princeton's longest-serving 18th century president, the Scottish-educated Dr. John Witherspoon, also contributed heavily to the Library's early expansion. By the end of the century the catalogue listed 3,000 volumes and students were expected to pay a fee of 67 cents for the privilege of using the Library each session.

Calamity befell the College in 1802 when Nassau Hall was gutted by fire. Among the most hard-felt losses was the Library, of which only a handful of books were salvaged. Vigorous campaigning by the Trustees in the years 1802-1804 enabled the reconstruction of the collection through gifts and donations, and the Library took up residence in the newly constructed Stanhope Hall, where it would remain until 1855. Among the most vital changes to the Library in the 19th century was the increased role of the University Librarian. While various faculty members had held the position since 1768, it was always in a part-time capacity and subsidiary to other work. Beginning with Philip Lindsly in 1813, the Librarian began preparing periodic reports to the President on the status of the Library, outlining acquisitions, damages to volumes, and other notable information. The formation in 1830 of the Library Committee, a subgroup of the Board of Trustees, further signaled the Library's growing importance in the academic life of the College, and when Nassau Hall was again rebuilt after fire in 1860 the Library moved back to its original home, in what is now the faculty room.

Despite the continued growth of the collections and the support of the Trustees and the President, the potential of the Library was largely untapped until the administration of President James McCosh. Until 1868 with several brief periods of exception the Library itself was open to students only once a week for the distribution and exchanging of books. It was McCosh who first seized upon the need for a full-time librarian, and instituted new Library hours every day of the week except Sunday. These alterations to the Library increased accessibility and brought it much more in line with the needs of the student body and the institution in the face of an evolving curriculum.

If any other signifier was needed that the Library had entered a new modern age under McCosh it was the construction of the first freestanding library building on campus, the Chancellor Green Library. This striking octagonal structure fulfilled most of the Library's needs admirably, providing space for the University Librarian, shelving alcoves, and reading spaces for students. Nonetheless, by 1897 the growth of the collections necessitated an addition, which came in the form of the adjoining Pyne Library. Through two World Wars the pair of connected libraries stood as a focal point on campus while great strides were made inside of them by staff. Some of the notable University Librarians who called Chancellor Green and Pyne home include Frederick Vinton, who instituted the Library's first author/subject card catalog; Ernest Cushing Richardson, who established a unique classification system to meet the needs of the collection; and James Thayer Gerould, a founder of the Association of Research Libraries.

At the turn of the 20th century, the Princeton University Library appeared to have reached a point of stasis. Capable administration, suitable facilities, well-developed and well-catalogued collections, and ample room for expansion all seemed to point to a level of stability unseen in the Library's history. Despite this, by the 1920s shelf space in the libraries was again at a premium and it was readily apparent that any plan to alleviate crowding would necessitate a new Library building. The years of planning which preceded the opening of the Firestone Memorial Library in 1948 were characterized by a newfound recognition of the role of the University Library in the post-war era. No longer was space for volumes the primary concern, but rather it was viewed one element to be balanced against the needs of students and staff. With its open stacks, vast reading room, and many multi-purpose spaces the Firestone Library was an influential structure among university libraries.

Though the opening of the new library building was undoubtedly the defining moment of the Princeton University Library in the twentieth century, other seeds were planted early on which would eventually blossom to become hallmarks of the Library. Many of these were related to the diversification and increased specialization of the Library's collections. The continual growth of the Library's manuscript, rare book, and graphic arts collections ultimately led to the formation of the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections in 1948-1949. In particular, the efforts of mid-century University Librarians Julian Boyd and William S. Dix to acquire the papers of noted authors and publishing houses, as well as many gifts of private collections and other donations made possible by the Friends of the Princeton University Library, helped make Princeton a center for research. Subject-specific collections such as the Industrial Relations Section also came into being around this time, and subsequent additions or renovations to Firestone have provided space for numerous other specialized units.

While the monolithic Firestone stands as the center of the Princeton University Library, in the second half of the 20th century the University Library has also expanded into several satellite libraries around campus. These include the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, home of the university archives and the public policy collections; the Fine Hall Library, housing the math, physics, biology, and geosciences collections; the Engineering Library; the Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology; the Stokes Library for Public and International affairs; the Mendel Music Library; and several other annexes and special subject libraries. Notable also is the ReCAP facility on Forrestal Campus, a vast shelving facility operated by Princeton in conjunction with Columbia University and the New York Public Library. All told, the University Library encompasses fifteen separate facilities, all operating under a single administration and towards the common goal of supporting the University's focus on scholarship and learning.

University Librarians

Sim, Hugh 1768

Linn, James 1769(?)-1770

Houston, William Churchill 1770-1786

Snowden, Gilbert Tennent 1786-1787

Abeel, John Nelson 1793

Finely, Robert 1793-1794

English, David 1794-1796

Ely, Alfred 1804-1805

Kollock,Henry 1804-1806

Bayard, Samuel 1806-1807

Belknap, Hezekiah 1807-1809

Dunlap, William 1809-1810

Bergen, John 1810-1812

Lindsly, Philip 1812-1849

Maclean, John Jr. 1824-1849

Giger, George Musgrave 1849-1865

Cameron, Henry Clay 1865-1873

Vinton, Frederic 1873-1889

Richardson, Ernest Cushing 1890-1920

Gerould, James Thayer 1920-1938

Heyl, Lawrence (Acting 1939-1940)

Boyd, Julian Parks 1940-1953

Kelley, Maurice (Acting 1952)

Dix, William Shepard 1953-1975

Boss, Richard 1976-1978

Koepp, Donald W. 1978-1995

Klath, Nancy S. (Acting 1995-1996)

Trainer, Karin A. 1996-

Howard C. Rice was a former assistant librarian for rare books and special collections at Princeton.

The Rittenhouse Orrery is a piece of scientific equipment used to model the solar system, which was built by David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) and purchased by College of New Jersey President John Witherspoon in 1771. The Orrery was installed in Nassau Hall and was a noted fixture on campus for over a century, until it was shipped to Chicago as part of Princeton's contribution to the 1893 World's Fair. Upon its return to Princeton, the orrery was locked away in storage and forgotten about until it was rediscovered and restored in 1951. The restored Rittenhouse Orrery was housed in Firestone Library in 1954, where it was the subject of sizable exhibition and an accompanying volume by Howard Crosby Rice.

Source: From the finding aid for AC123

Biography and History

The Princeton University musical tradition dates back to as early as commencement 1759, when students sang an ode by James Lyon, a graduate that year who went on to a career in music composition. Since that time, the University has been host to a wide array of musical performances on a regular basis. Concerts and recitals by the University’s many musical clubs and organizations, as well as performers from outside the University have been standard fare over the years. In the last several decades these performances have been funded in large part by the Friends of Music at Princeton.

Instrumental music entered the musical scene at Princeton in the 1760’s with the purchase of an organ. It soon proved to be an unpopular choice, however, for Princeton was a Presbyterian school at the time, and this was the first organ installed in a Presbyterian place of worship. It was never heavily used, and organ and vesper recitals did not become regular campus events until the installation of an organ in the Graduate College dining hall, which opened in 1913. Instrumental music in general only gained a popular following on campus in the mid-to-late 19th century. The Instrumental Club, the first of its kind on campus, was founded in 1876. Later additions included the Banjo Club, Mandolin Club, University Orchestra and University Band.

The Princeton University Glee Club was founded in 1874. An offshoot of the now-extinct University Quartette, the Glee Club is the oldest singing group at the University. In the years following its formation, the Glee Club often collaborated and performed with the University instrumental clubs. The Glee Club began touring the country in the 1890s. More recently, they have spread their talent abroad through tours of Europe, Asia, and South America. In 1913, the Princeton Glee Club first performed with the Glee Clubs of Harvard and Yale, an annual tradition that endures to the present day.

In 1894 the Princeton University Concerts series was founded by Philenas Fobes Fine (wife of Henry Burchard Fine, a professor and dean) and the Ladies' Musical Committee. In 1929 the Princeton University Concerts Committee was established and took control, which in conjunction with the Friends of Music has guided the concerts series ever since.

Friends of Music at Princeton is a donor-supported organization that sponsors a wide variety of concerts at Princeton University. The concerts, usually in the Frank E. Taplin '37 auditorium in Fine Hall, are open to the public and free of charge, and feature professional musicians as well as talented amateur and student musicians. Friends of Music at Princeton was founded in the 1940s by Professor Roy Dickinson Welch, who was also the first chair of the Department of Music. Administrative support for the Friends of Music and the Princeton University Concerts Committee is provided by the Princeton University Concert Office, which handles accounting, event planning, and artist coordination.

Source: From the finding aid for AC205

Biography and History

Class of 1851 or Class of 1887.

Class of 1922

Class of 1982

Class of 1919

Class of 1866

Class of 1878

Class of 1901

Class of 1887

Class of 1900

Class of 1896

Class of 1988

Class of 1896

Class of 1899

Class of 1888

Class of 1891

Class of 1914

Class of 1910

Class of 1894

Class of 1942

Class of 1903

Class of 1913

Class of 1945

Class of 1949

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Class of 1956

Source: From the finding aid for AC374

Biography and History

Princeton students have formed clubs for social, charitable, religious, political and other purposes nearly since the school's founding. The American Whig-Cliosophic Society, which was formed from the merger of two student groups both founded around 1765, is certainly the oldest still in operation, but many other clubs have sprung up and faded out of activity in the nearly two and a half centuries of its existence. Often, these clubs were operated for primarily social reasons, but they have also served as tools of political and social work, and have made meaningful contributions to students' educational experiences.

The student clubs represented in this collection had a variety of origins and purposes, from the Nassau Hall Education Society, which was founded in 1821 to provide financial assistance to students regardless of faith or career plans; to the International Polity Club, which under the auspices of the World Peace Foundation created opportunities for Princeton students to interact with national and international political scholars and figures; to the Hill Club of the Class of 1904, which appears to have been a purely social endeavor.

Source: From the finding aid for AC406

Biography and History

A graduate of Princeton in 1760, Enos Kelsey became a general merchant in Princeton. In 1776, he was elected to the New Jesey Provincial Congress and raised supplies for the Continental Army. He was appointed state clothier in June 1779. Kelsey served as treasurer of the College of New Jersey (later known as Princeton University) from 1796 till 1810. He died in Princeton on June 26, 1811.

Source: From the finding aid for C0032

Biography and History

The Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, located in the Harvey S. Firestone Library and the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, is one of the premier repositories of its kind. Its holdings span five millennia and five continents, and include around 200,000 rare or significant printed works; 30,000 linear feet of textual materials, ranging from cuneiform tablets to contemporary manuscripts; a wealth of prints, drawings, photographs, maps, coins, and other visual materials; the Cotsen Children's Library; and the Princeton University Archives. The privately owned Scheide Library is associated with the Department.

Source: From the finding aid for C0140

Biography and History

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt. The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite."

Source: From the finding aid for C0181

Biography and History

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration was a document formally explaining why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The birthday of the United States of America—Independence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress. Contrary to a widely held belief, Congress did not sign the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The Declaration was first published as a typeset broadside; the famous handwritten version was created after July 19, and was signed by most Congressional delegates on August 2. It is one of the most cherished historic documents in the world and is perhaps the most enduring legacy of Jefferson.

Source: From the finding aid for C0197

Biography and History

American painter and naturalist, Charles Willson Peale is best known for his portraiture, especially his portraits of George Washington.

Source: From the finding aid for C0242

Biography and History

The surname of Crispin was a baptismal name meaning "the son of Crispian," an early font name which was originally derived from the Latin Crispinus and was brought into England in the wake of the Norman Invasion of 1066. This name was especially popular in France in the Middle Ages, having been borne by Saint Crispin (martyred in 287). From there it spread to the New World and across the United States.

Source: From the finding aid for C0413

Biography and History

Westfield, New Jersey, was part of Elizabethtown from the time it was settled in late 1664 until 1794, when the Township of Westfield was created. The Rev. James Huntting, pastor of the Westfield Presbyterian Church, wrote in 1839 that Westfield parish was settled about the year 1720, for by that year there were enough settlers in the west fields of Elizabethtown for it to be considered a distinct settlement. By 1741 the newly organized Borough of Elizabeth included three western wards: Westfield, Rahway and Springfield.

The founding families and subsequently prominent families of Westfield include Baker, Bryant, Clark, Connet, Cory, Craig, Crane, Davis, Denman, Dunham, Hetfield, Hole, Lambert, Littell, Ludlum, Marsh, Meeker, Miller, Pierson, Ripley, Ross, Scudder, Terry, Tucker, Willcox, Williams, Woodruff, and Yeomans. These families became interconnected through marriage, business, and land transactions and they appear to have been involved with the political, legal, and financial interactions of the region.

Source: From the finding aid for C0522

Biography and History

As early as 1609, the Dutch explored and settled the state that is currently New Jersey, the first permanent settlement created in Bergen in 1660. Shortly afterwards, the British seized control from the Dutch and renamed the area New Jersey. The inhabitants of New Jersey played an important role in the American Revolution; and many battles were fought in New Jersey, including the battles of Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth which were decisive victories for the Continental Army.

Following the end of the Revolution, New Jersey became the third state to adopt the Constitution and the first state to approve the Bill of Rights. William Paterson proposed the New Jersey Plan during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, which resulted in the United States Senate. A gradual abolition act was passed in 1804, the slave trade was abolished in 1818, and slavery was abolished in 1846. During the Civil War, 88,000 New Jersey soldiers fought for the Union.

In the nineteenth century, New Jersey cities led the nation into the Industrial Revolution.

Source: From the finding aid for C0523

Biography and History

Tours and Touraine (France) remained until the 16th century a continual stay of the kings and Court. The permanent return of the Court towards Paris then Versailles marked the beginning of a slow but permanent decline in the 18th century. The arrival of the railroad in the 19th century saved the city by making it an important crossroads.

Source: From the finding aid for C0575

Biography and History

In theater, Naturalism developed in the late 19th and early 20th century (1900-1914). It refers to theater that attempts to create a perfect illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies: detailed, three-dimensional settings (which bring Darwinian understandings of the determining role of the environment into the staging of human drama); everyday speech forms (prose over poetry); a secular world-view (no ghosts, spirits or gods intervening in the human action); an exclusive focus on subjects that are contemporary and indigenous (no exotic, otherworldly or fantastic locales, nor historical or mythic time-periods); an extension of the social range of characters portrayed (away from the aristocrats of classical drama, towards bourgeois and eventually working-class protagonists); and a style of acting that attempts to recreate the impression of reality (often by seeking complete identification with the role, understood in terms of its 'given circumstances'. Realism was a general movement in the late nineteenth century that steered theatrical texts and performances toward greater fidelity to real life. [from Wikipedia]

Source: From the finding aid for C0613

Biography and History

The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923) was known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey by its contemporaries. It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey, which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923. At the height of its power (16th–17th century), it spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. It stretched from the Strait of Gibraltar (and, in 1553, the Atlantic coast of Morocco beyond Gibraltar) in the west to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf in the east, and from the edge of Austria, Hungary and parts of Ukraine in the north to Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia and Yemen in the south. The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces, in addition to the tributary principalities of Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia. [from Wikipedia]

Source: From the finding aid for C0629

Biography and History

General Augusto Pinochet, one of the most controversial figures in recent Chilean history, was head of the military fascist dictatorship (military junta) that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. The 1973 coup overthrew the Socialist president Salvador Allende, who is believed to have committed suicide in the midst of the coup. Civilian rule was eventually restored in 1990, opening the way for the country's transition to democracy.

Source: From the finding aid for C0683

Biography and History

Galeazzo Marescotti served as papal nuncio to the royal court of King Carlos II of Spain from 1670 until 1675, at which time he was elevated to the position of archbishop of Corinth, Greece.

Source: From the finding aid for C0758

Biography and History

The New Series of Islamic Manuscripts was formed between 1955 and 1982, primarily by Rudolf Mach. Mach was curator of the Near East Collections, Princeton University Library (1955-1977) and a professor in the Department of Near Eastern Studies until his death in 1981. The collection consists of approximately 5000 texts and includes works in Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish.

Source: From the finding aid for C0765

Biography and History

Beginning with the gift of the Robert Garrett Collection in 1942, the Princeton University Library continues to acquire Ethiopic manuscripts by means of purchase or gift.

Source: From the finding aid for C0776

Biography and History

Review was first published in 1968 as an annual of “reviews of Latin American literature in English translation” that had previously appeared in North American publications. In 1970, Ronald J. Christ became the editor of Review and expanded the magazine to include critical articles and interviews commissioned by the journal's editor. Christ served as editor until 1981, when Luis Harss assumed the position. Harss edited the journal for three issues, #28-31. The next two issues, #32 and #33 were edited by an editorial board. Beginning in 1985 with issue #34, the editor of Review has been Alfred J. Mac Adam. In addition to these editors, another important person in the magazine's history is Rosario Santos. During the period 1971-1985, she held a variety of titles, including associate editor, managing editor, and director of the Literature Program of the Center for Inter-American Relations. Santos was also instrumental in bringing Latin American writers to the Center to serve as writers-in-residence or to give public readings.

The Center for Inter-American Relations was a nonprofit institution based in New York, N.Y. which sponsored educational and cultural programs on Latin America and Canada. In 1987, the Center for Inter-American Relations was absorbed by the Americas Society, Inc., a similar nonprofit, nonpartisan institution dedicated to informing the American people about societies and cultures of the countries of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Canada. Also in 1987, the title of the magazine was changed from Review to Review: Latin American Literature and the Arts.

Source: From the finding aid for C0812

Biography and History

Jansenism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the theologian Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638). His doctrines held that human beings cannot achieve goodness without the intervention of God’s grace and that a minority of individuals has been predestined by God for salvation.

Source: From the finding aid for C0838

Biography and History

The Greek Civil War was consisted of fighting between Governmental forces and the Democratic Army of Greece, which was the military wing of the Greek communist party. The Governmental forces were initially supported by the United Kingdom and later received logistical support from the United States.

Source: From the finding aid for C0853

Biography and History

This collection is comprised of records that document the social and ecclesiastical history of colonial Tlalpujahua (Tlalpuxagua), a town located in the northeast part of what is today Michoacán, Mexico, and its environs. Tlalpuxagua was a jurisdiction within Spain's northernmost viceroyalty of New Spain the Indies. After silver mines were discovered in the vicinity in 1558, Tlalpujahua became a secondary mining center, and as a result the municipality gained its first alcalde mayor of the newly-established Real de Minas de Tlalpuxagua. A considerable indigenous population lived in the region surrounding the town and mines.

The ecclesiastical documents pertain to the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, a Franciscan monastery built in Tlalpujahua in 1703. It fell within the Franciscan province of San Pedro y San Pablo de Michoacán (established 1565), whose boundaries overlapped with Diocese of Michoacán. While Franciscans arrived in New Spain as early as 1523, the friars were not active in the jurisdiction of Tlalpuxagua until just after 1538, when a monastery-parish was founded in San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro. There was a resident diocesan curate at San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro by 1565. Franciscan activities increased at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, when mining activity increased in the area. In June 1686 a Third Order Secular of St. Francis was established under the guidance of the friars and, in February 1703, a hospital and the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe were founded.

Source: From the finding aid for C0867

Biography and History

Born on August 13, 1926, Fidel Castro is a Cuban revolutionary leader who led his country from January 1959 until his resignation in February 2008.

Source: From the finding aid for C0870

Biography and History

The collection was begun in the year 2000 to physically house together miscellaneous Greek manuscripts of the modern era. Each volume has been cataloged separately in the online library catalog.

Source: From the finding aid for C0879

Biography and History

The Princeton University Library Chronicle is an interdisciplinary journal whose mission is to publish articles of scholarly importance and general interest based on research in the collections of the Princeton University Library. The Chronicle is published three times a year (Autumn, Winter, Spring) under the sponsorship of the Friends of the Princeton University Library.

Source: From the finding aid for C0902

Biography and History

The Princeton University Library Chronicle is an interdisciplinary journal whose mission is to publish articles of scholarly importance and general interest based on research in the collections of the Princeton University Library. The Chronicle is published three times a year (Autumn, Winter, Spring) under the sponsorship of the Friends of the Princeton University Library. [from Friends of the Princeton Library]

Source: From the finding aid for C0919

Biography and History

Formerly in the Library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, the collection provides sources and background for a number of influential Italian individuals from the period. Due to the amount of correspondence with Francesco G/Caetani, Antonio Roffi, and Antonio Roffia, it is possible that parts of this collection originated with their family papers.

Source: From the finding aid for C0920

Biography and History

Founded in 1299, at the pinnacle of its power and influence, the Ottoman Empire controlled much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

Source: From the finding aid for C0930

Biography and History

The collection was a gift of Stefano Papageorgiou in appreciation of Dimitri Gondicas, director of Princeton's Hellenic Studies Program.

Source: From the finding aid for C0933

Biography and History

Since 1947, the Princeton University Library has acquired Mesoamerican manuscripts and artifacts as gift and purchase.

Source: From the finding aid for C0940

Biography and History

The collection was established in 2003 to house miscellaneous material related to Helleinic Studies.

Source: From the finding aid for C0958

Biography and History

The Lampersdorf Lutheran Congregation was a Lutheran organization in Lampersdorf, Silesia (now Zaborow, Poland) that was active from the seventeeth through the ninetheenth centuries.

Source: From the finding aid for C0979

Biography and History

New Granada was a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Before the nineteenth century independence struggles, the Viceroyalty of New Granada existed as a political and administrative entity which also extended to include oversight over local authorities in Ecuador, Guyana, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela, as well as small parts of Brazil and Peru.[from Wikipedia]

Source: From the finding aid for C1052

Biography and History

Richard Stockton Field, a grandson of a signer of the Declaration, was attorney general of New Jersey (1834-1841) and professor at the Princeton School of Law (1847). He was one of the founders of the New Jersey Historical Society. Mary Peale Field was the wife of Richard Stockton (1764-1828), New Jersey senator and vice-presidential candidate.

Source: From the finding aid for C1054

Biography and History

The pivotal event of European history in the Eighteenth Century was the French Revolution. From its outbreak in 1789, the Revolution transformed social values and political systems in France, in Europe, and eventually throughout the world. Its ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity defined the essential aspirations of modern liberal society. Camille Desmoulins was a French revolutionary and journalist. His oratory of July 12, 1789, contributed to the storming of the Bastille two days later. However, in 1793, he was arrested and executed. Desmoulins is famous for his songs of the revolutionary period, particularly the "Chant du départ." Marie-Joseph Blaise de Chénier was a French poet and dramatist. A member of the Convention, the Council of Five Hundred, and the Tribunate during the French Revolution, he wrote a number of political and historical plays, notably Charles IX (1789).

Source: From the finding aid for C1062

Biography and History

Greenwich is a township in Berks County in the Reading metro area of Pennsylvania. Its east end juts out into the Delaware River--hence, its "island" name in the eighteenth century. The first European settlers came to the area in the early 1700s. These settlers were mostly Germans, although some were descendants of French Huguenots. They settled the area as farmers, building family farmsteads and clearing the land for agriculture. Greenwich Township was originally part of Albany Township. It separated from Albany and incorporated as a township in 1755. It was named by English settlers after Greenwich, England.

Source: From the finding aid for C1070

Biography and History

Ralph Hunt was the first member of the Hunt family who came from England to Long Island, N.Y., in 1652. He had several grandchildren of which Richard Hunt settled in Hunterdon County, N.J., Ralph Hunt in Maidenhead (now Lawrenceville), N.J., and Edward Hunt in Hopewell, N.J. Of their descendants Abraham Hunt (d. 1821) was a merchant in Trenton and a trustee of the First Presbyterian Church of Trenton. He was also Postmaster of Trenton, and was later appointed by Benjamin Franklin as Postmaster of the United States. Abraham's son Robert Hunt graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), as did several other members of the Hunt family. Peter Hunt (d. 1810) was also a trustee of the First Presbyterian Church of Trenton. He was a wealthy merchant who owned a store and a mansion in Lamberton, N.J. Rev. John Guild was the pastor of churches in Hopewell (1741), Maidenhead, and Trenton. He married Charity, the daughter of Ralph Hunt and sister of Azariah Hunt, and his daughter Margaret married John Price Hunt. Among Rev. John Guild's children Benjamin was a merchant at Pittstown, N.J., and, afterward, at New Brunswick, N.J.

Source: From the finding aid for C1087

Biography and History

John Peter Jackson, Princeton Class of 1823, was a member of the New Jersey Assembly (1831-1833), speaker of the New Jersey Assembly (1823-1833), clerk, Essex County, N.J. (1839-1849), and vice-president and superintendent of the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company. F. Wolcott Jackson was general superintendent of the New Jersey division of the Pennsylvania Rail Road Company. John B. Jackson worked in the U.S. Foreign Service.

The first railroad charter in the United States was issued February 6, 1815, to the New Jersey Railroad Company on behalf of John Stevens and others. Based on turnpike charters, it allowed the company to build between New Brunswick and Trenton, and became a model for railroad charters in the future. Though that company never managed to build anything, the idea evolved later into the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company (NJRR), chartered in 1832. The Camden and Amboy Rail Road and Transportation Company (C&A) was chartered in 1830. In 1872 The NJRR and the C&A merged to create the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company which was part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system in New Jersey, including its main line to New York City (now Amtrak's Northeast Corridor).

Source: From the finding aid for C1094

Biography and History

In the 1700s in America, many of the Founding Fathers played and sponsored lotteries. Benjamin Franklin used lotteries to finance cannons for the Revolutionary War; and John Hancock operated a lottery to rebuild Faneuil Hall in Boston. In 1776 lotteries were authorized to raise money for the Colonial Army; Thomas Jefferson, greatly in debt at the end of his life, used a lottery to dispose of the bulk of his property

Around 1789 lotteries were most active following the adoption of the Constitution and prior to the establishment of effective means of local taxation. From 1790 to the Civil War fifty colleges, three hundred schools, and two hundred churches were erected with lottery proceeds. Universities such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia were funded by lotteries. From 1790 to 1860 twenty-four of the thirty-three states financed civic improvements, such as courthouses, jails, hospitals, orphanages, and libraries, through lotteries. From 1820 to 1878 corruption in privately operated lotteries became rampant. Governments were unable to regulate these lotteries and began to consider prohibition. In the 1820s New York State passed the first constitutional prohibition of lotteries in the United States.

The tickets, on average, measured 2.5 x 6.75 in. Early on they were printed only in black, later with colors such as red, blue, and green. They often had a "State Lotteries" stamp and, in the nineteenth century, a lottery watermark.

Source: From the finding aid for C1114

Biography and History

On Dec. 28, 1908, at 5:20 a.m., Europe's most powerful earthquake shook Messina, a city located in the northeast corner of the island of Sicily. The quake measured 7.5 by today's Richter scale. Moments after the first jolt, a devastating tsunami formed, causing forty-foot waves to crash down on dozens of coastal cities. Estimates of fatalities vary, but range between 60,000 and 200,000 people.

Source: From the finding aid for C1129

Biography and History

The New York Central Railroad, known as the New York Central in its publicity, operated in the northeastern United States. Headquartered in New York City, the railroad served most of the Northeast, including extensive trackage in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Massachusetts and much of New England, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec. Its primary connections included Chicago and Boston. The New York Central System was made up of the following companies: The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad; Boston & Albany Railroad; Canadian Southern Railway; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway; Chicago River & Indiana Railroad; Indiana Harbor Belt; Lake Erie and Western Railroad; Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway; Michigan Central Railroad; Peoria and Eastern Railway (P& E) Company; Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad; Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway; West Shore Railroad, including the New Jersey Junction Railroad. In 1968 the NYC merged with its former rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. That company soon went bankrupt and was taken over by the federal government and merged into Conrail in 1976, which again was broken up in 1998, and much of its system was transferred to the newly-formed New York Central Lines.

Source: From the finding aid for C1136

Biography and History

Edward Shippen, 1703-1785, was chief justice of Pennsylvania ( 1745-?), prothonotary (1752-1781) at Lancaster, Pa., paymaster of supplies in the Pennsylvania army, one of the founders of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) and a trustee there from 1748 till his resignation in 1767.

Edward Shippen, 1729-1806, son of Edward Shippen, Sr., was chief justice of Pennsylvania, a prothonotary of the Supreme Court from about 1762 to1776, and a member of the Provincial Council from 1770 to 1775. He provided the earliest published law reports of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

Joseph Shippen, Jr., graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1753. He was a captain in Colonel Clapham's regiment in Pennsylvania, secretary (1762-1776) for the Province of Pennsylvania, and a judge (1789-1810) in the County Court of Lancaster, Pa.

Thomas Lee Shippen received an honorary degree from the College of New Jersey in 1788.

William Shippen, 1712-1801, was one of the prominent medical men of his day and a member of the Continental Congress. He was the father of William Shippen, 1736?-1808.

William Shippen, 1736?-1808, son of William Shippen, was a physician and pioneer teacher of anatomy and midwifery. He received his A.B. from the College of New Jersey in 1754 and served as a trustee there in 1797. He was appointed chief physician and director-general of the Continental Army Hospital in 1777.

Source: From the finding aid for C1200

Biography and History

Frederick Douglass was a slave who became one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, fighting to end slavery within the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. He served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for African Americans.

Henry Christophe, a freed slave born on the island of Grenada, became a career officer and general in the Haitian Army, leading the rebellion and achieving independence for Haiti under Toussaint Louverture. Christophe fought with another freed slave, Jean Jacques Dessalines, who, as leader, declared Saint-Domingue's independence with the new name of Haiti in 1804. In 1806 Christophe became aware of a plot to assassinate Dessalines, but, seeing an opportunity to seize power for himself, he did not warn the self-proclaimed emperor. The plot was initiated by Alexandre Pétion, a competing slave. After Dessalines' assassination, Christophe declared himself President and Generalissimo of the armies of land and sea of the State of Haiti, while Pétion became President of the "Republic of Haiti" in the south. Christophe made the northern state of Haiti a kingdom and was proclaimed Henri I, King of Haiti, on March 26, 1811. He committed suicide on October 8, 1820.

Source: From the finding aid for C1210

Biography and History

Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat, upon which, as Judeo-Christian theology states, Noah's Ark came to rest after the flood. In 301, Armenia became the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as its official state religion. Since the 11th century Armenia has been under the rule of the Byzantine Empire, the Mongols, the Safavids of Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia. The years between 1915 and 1917 witnessed resistance by the Armenians against the week Ottoman Empire. Armenian intellectuals were arrested, and a large number living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the "Armenian Genocide". The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during this period. Estimates for the number of Armenians killed range from 650,000 to 1.5 million. With the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the advent of World War I, the Russians were able to take control of most of Ottoman Armenia. At the end of the war, the victorious Entente powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire on August 10, 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the Democratic Republic of Armenia, initially founded in 1918. Since the borders of Armenia were to be drawn by President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia was also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia." It was later annexed by Bolshevist Russia, and in 1922 was incorporated into the Soviet Union as part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. It was not until 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed that Armenia declared its independence on August 23. It was the first non-Baltic republic to secede from the former Soviet Union.

Boghos Nubar, an Egyptian Armenian, and son of the celebrated Nubar Pasha, founded The American General Benevolent Union (Cairo, April 15, 1906), an organization headquartered in New York City. He headed the Armenian National Delegation to the Versailles Conference in 1922.

Source: From the finding aid for C1221

Biography and History

The late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Empire was a multi-ethnic and multi-religious Turkish-ruled state. At the height of its power (16th-17th century), it spanned three continents, controlling much of southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar in the west to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf in the east, from the edge of Austria, Slovakia, and parts of Ukraine in the north to Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia, and Yemen in the south. The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces, in addition to the tributary principalities of Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia.

Source: From the finding aid for C1251

Biography and History

The decade from 1880 to 1890 was a great boom period in Argentine economic history, surpassing economic development in all preceding decades. By that time, the country had become one of the chief suppliers of wool to an expanding world market. Business opportunities were sought there, particularly from English merchants in Liverpool, an important hub of European trade.

Source: From the finding aid for C1287

Biography and History

The state of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1681 in order to establish a haven for the Quakers, a persecuted sect in England at the time. William Penn, a Quaker himself, was granted land in the English North American Territory, and was the largest private landowner in the areas south of New York and New Jersey. Penn first called the area "New Wales", then "Sylvania" (Latin for "forests or woods"), which King Charles changed to "Pennsylvania" in honor of Penn's father, Admiral Sir William Penn. Immigrants and settlers from British, German, and Indian ancestry intermingled in its early years, with African American slaves being brought in despite Quaker opposition. Pennsylvania served a significant role during the Revolution and the founding of the nation, with Philadelphia being the capital during the Revolution and until the opening of the District of Columbia in 1800.

Source: From the finding aid for C1291

Biography and History

In the 1890s, W. R. Ellis, of Alameda County, California, invented a compact voting machine that recorded and tabulated votes mechanically. It is unclear if it was ever used in an election.

Source: From the finding aid for C1309

Biography and History

Edward Livermore was born March 18, 1815, in Holderness, N.H.; died May 28, 1886, in Kenosha, Wis. He was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1833. He studied divinity at the Theological Seminary in New York; he took Deacon's orders Sept. 27, 1838, and Priest's orders April 21, 1839. He officiated first at Drewsville, N.H., and afterwards as rector of Emmanuel Church, in Little Falls, N.Y., until 1850. His pastorate in Little Falls was broken by a journey to Santa Cruz, or St. Croix, in the West Indies, and a residence there of several months in 1847-48; in 1850 he became rector of St. Paul's Church, in Waterloo, remaining there until early in 1855, when illness compelled him to resign. He was, in 1856, rector of Zion Church, at East Bloomfield, N.Y., remaining there until early in 1859. In the spring of 1860, he removed to Minnesota, and for twenty-three years was rector of the Church of the Holy Communion, in St. Peter. During part of his residence in Minnesota, he was a member of the Ecclesiastical Court and one of the Rural Deans of the Diocese. In 1883, he became the chaplain of Kemper Hall, Kenosha, a school under the management of the Sisters of St. Mary. (Thwing, 1902) The church in St. Peter, Minnesota still exists and has a plaque in memory of Rev. Edward Livermore. There is also a Livermore Street in St. Peter named after him.

Source: From the finding aid for C1311

Biography and History

The Religious Society of Friends is a worldwide religious movement, members of which are formally known as Friends or informally known as Quakers. It is based on the idea that individuals can have a personal relationship with the divine without the need for intermediaries, such as priests, rituals or sacraments. It is historically rooted in interpretations of the reported teachings of Jesus Christ, and many would regard it as a denomination of Christianity, although it has considerable differences from most other Christian groups. The Religious Society of Friends developed out of a Christian movement of people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity in England in the 17th century, and wished to return to a way of life based on their interpretations of early Christian communities. There were many involved at the start of this movement, and there is no single founder or leader. Today, George Fox is probably the most well-known of these early figures, sometimes referred to as the "leader rather than the founder" of the movement. [from Google]

Source: From the finding aid for C1337

Biography and History

Woodrow Wilson is best known as the 28th president of the United States of America, founder of the League of Nations, governor of New Jersey, president of Princeton University, professor and historian. Born Thomas Woodrow Wilson in late December 1856 in Staunton, Virginia, Wilson was the son of Dr. Joseph Ruggles Wilson, Presbyterian minister and director of the Augusta Female Seminary, and Janet Woodrow. Wilson began his college career at Davidson near Charlotte, North Carolina, but after a year there and a further year under his father's tutelage came to Princeton University. Wilson was expected to study for the ministry, but at Davidson he developed an interest in politics. He carried this interest to Princeton, where he studied and read extensively in history and politics. After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta. However, Wilson abandoned law practice in Georgia to pursue an advanced degree in historical and political science at the Johns Hopkins University . He received his doctorate in two years and, after successive professorships at Bryn Mawr College (1885) and Wesleyan University (1888), Wilson joined the Princeton faculty in 1890 as Professor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy. Wilson had married Ellen Axson on 24 June 1885, and their family soon expanded with the birth of three daughters.

During his time at Princeton, Wilson published four major works: Division and Reunion, George Washington, Mere Literature and Other Essays, and An Old Master and Other Publication. A notable event in Wilson's professorial career at Princeton occurred on the occasion of the Sesquicentennial (or 150th birthday) in 1896, when the College of New Jersey officially became Princeton University. At this celebration, Wilson delivered his famous speech, “Princeton in the Nation's Service,” in which he proposed the following ideal for the Princeton student: seek the education required to carry into the world a sense of duty and purpose for the nation. Wilson was chosen president of Princeton in 1902. He immediately revised the academic structure of the University dividing the faculty into four areas: Philosophy, Art and Archaeology, Languages and Literature, and Mathematics and Science and introducing the preceptorial system. Wilson also attempted to abolish Princeton's eating clubs through his “Quadrangle Plan,” which eventually was defeated. This conflict was followed by Wilson's battle with Dean Andrew Fleming West and the Trustees in 1908 over the location of the new Graduate College. Wilson favored a central location for the school, but West favored its placement away from campus. Wilson lost this fight.

During the summer of 1910, Wilson accepted the Democratic nomination for Governor of New Jersey. Wilson won the election with the assistance of Democratic political bosses, but soon distanced himself from them with his progressive agenda as the people's advocate against special interests. His progressive policies made Wilson a good candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1912, and he won the nomination with the support and assistance of Edward M. House, William Jennings Bryan, and William Gibbs McAdoo. Wilson also won the presidency, and used his techniques of presidential leadership to gain the adoption of his New Freedom agenda. He advocated three major reforms: the reduction of import tariffs, banking and currency reform, and antitrust reform. In his family relations, Wilson saw two daughters married and the third leave home to pursue a career. Wilson's greatest loss, however, was the death of his wife on 6 August 1914. Soon after Ellen Wilson's death, the president met Edith Bolling Galt whom he married on 18 December 1915.

In international relations, Wilson promoted Pan-Americanism and was eager to protect American economic interests. By fostering governments friendly to the United States, he sought to exclude European influence and impose American control in the region. The revolution in Mexico caused Wilson more difficulty than any other foreign policy issue in the Western Hemisphere as he attempted to shape Mexico's politics through peaceful means and military intervention. The larger international relations issue throughout Wilson's early presidency was keeping the United States out of the European war. From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914. Recognizing, however, that the war might threaten U.S. interests, Wilson was anxious to negotiate a compromise peace. He offered U.S. mediation and authorized Edward House, who had been in Europe on the eve of the July 1914 crisis, to continue his efforts to resolve the Anglo-German rivalry; by April 1915 it was obvious that House had failed to achieve any reconciliation between the belligerents. Wilson continued to work with the European nations to search for peace, even as he campaigned for reelection in 1916. Despite Wilson's push for peace, soon after the inauguration of his second term Wilson led the United States into the European conflict. Wilson appointed General John J. Pershing to take charge of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe, and Congress passed the Selective Service Act giving the federal government the power to draft young men into the U.S. armed forces. On the home front, the president exerted vigorous executive leadership, managing public opinion and mobilizing the economy; wartime measures gave the Wilson administration unprecedented powers over the daily life of Americans.

Wilson outlined his vision of progressive order on 8 January 1918 in the Fourteen Points address to Congress. His plan called for open diplomacy, freedom of navigation and commerce, disarmament, national self-determination, and a postwar League of Nations. In October 1918, facing military defeat, Germany appealed to Wilson for peace on the basis of his Fourteen Points; on this basis, but with reservations, the two sides concluded the armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war. Wilson participated personally in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. At the heart of Wilson's peace program was the new League of Nations. He made drafting the covenant for this new international organization his top priority and insisted on its inclusion in the peace treaty. Although the Germans almost universally denounced the peace treaty that their delegation received at Versailles on 7 May 1919, Wilson joined the Allies and compelled Germany to sign the treaty on 28 June 1919. Back at home, the Senate would not approve the treaty without attaching strong reservations, if not amendments, to the ratification resolution. Wilson once more decided to appeal directly to the American people and in September 1919 went on a speaking tour of western states. During the tour, Wilson's health collapsed. On 2 October 1919, back in Washington, he suffered a massive stroke. With Edith Wilson's assistance, and that of his loyal private secretary Joseph P. Tumulty, the president managed to finish his term but could exercise only minimal leadership during the remaining months. Despite Wilson's work, the Senate rejected the treaty on 19 November 1919 and again on 19 March 1920, thereby preventing the United States from joining the League of Nations.

Despite his illness, Wilson had considered running for a third term but his closest associates forced him to abandon this idea. Woodrow and Edith Wilson retired to their home in Washington on 4 March 1921 in relative obscurity. He died at home in Washington on 2 February 1924.

Source: From the finding aid for MC168

Biography and History

The minstrel show, one of the earliest indigenous forms of American entertainment, developed in the 1840s, peaked after the Civil War and remained popular into the early 1900s. The minstrel show evolved from two types of entertainment popular in America before 1830: the impersonation of blacks by white actors between acts of plays or during circuses; and the performances of black musicians who sang, with banjo accompaniment, in city streets.

The “father of American minstrelsy” was Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice, who between 1828 and 1831 developed a song-and-dance routine in which he impersonated an old, crippled black slave, dubbed Jim Crow. This routine achieved immediate popularity, and throughout the 1830's Rice had many imitators. Dan Emmett's Virginia Minstrels, the first blackface troupe, which debuted at New York's Bowery Amphitheatre in 1843.

During the 1840s the show was divided into two parts. The first concentrated largely upon the urban black dandy, the second on the southern plantation slave. Both featured stereotyped caricatures rather than genuine depictions of blacks, and were usually demeaning. By the 1850s, however, black elements had been reduced and moved to the concluding section of a three-part show. Music of the “genteel” tradition now prevailed in the first section, where popular and sentimental ballads of the day and polished minstrel songs supplanted the older and cruder dialect tunes. The middle part consisted of the “olio,” a potpourri of dancing and musical virtuosity, with parodies of Italian operas, stage plays, and visiting European singing groups. The high point of the show was the concluding section, the “walk-around.” This was an ensemble finale in which members of the troupe in various combinations participated in song, instrumental and choral music and dance.

Mixed casts of white and African American performers were forbidden by law in many parts of the U.S., but were secretly included in some white companies. After the Civil War, mixed and all-black minstrel companies toured America and Great Britain. Most troupes were all male, using female impersonators in the skits. In later years, some minstrel troupes included women and an all-female group, Madame Rentz's Minstrels, toured burlesque circuits in the 1870s.

By 1919, only three troupes remained in the U.S. Economic reasons contributed to the decline, as did a growing craze for gigantic minstrel shows, exemplified by Haverly's Mastodon Minstrels, with over 100 performers and lavish stage settings, and the famous Lew Dockstader's Minstrels, who presented elaborate programs related to modern vaudeville rather than to the older, simpler form.

Source: From the finding aid for TC050

Biography and History

The William Seymour Theatre Collection, which is housed chiefly in the Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library, encompasses over one hundred collections relating to the performing arts, including theater, dance, film, circus, and other popular forms of entertainment. Materials date from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries and include the papers of individuals such as William Seymour, Richard Schechner, and Woody Allen; the records of organizations such as the early Barnum and Bailey Circus and McCarter Theatre; and playbills, posters, photographs, film stills, scripts, sheet music, and set and costume designs.

Source: From the finding aid for TC120

Biography and History

The Royal Danish Ballet was formed in 1771, due to the popularity of French and Italian styles of dance. Its founding coincided with the opening of the Royal Danish Theater, which serves as the home of the ballet. Isadora Bennett was a dance publicist at the firm Bennett & Pleasant, 147 W. 55, New York, New York.

Source: From the finding aid for TC126

Biography and History

The Gipson family was a prominent family of Caldwell, Idaho. Ruth Gipson Plowhead (1877-1868), was a magazine writer and editor, Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880-1971) was a professor of history at Lehigh University, Alice Edna Gipson (b. 1882) was a professor of English and a college administrator, and James Herrick Gipson (1885-1965) was a publisher at The Caxton Printers, Ltd.

Source: From the finding aid for WC013

Biography and History

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints originated from the Latter Day Saint movement and was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr., in 1830 soon after the publication of his work The Book of Mormon.

Source: From the finding aid for WC019

Biography and History

Forts Craig, Cummings, Union, and Sumner were built in the 1850s and 1860s, originally for the purpose of preventing Indian raids on commerce and frontier settlements. The forts went on to play important roles in Indian campaigns and the Civil War.

Source: From the finding aid for WC024

Biography and History

The act of marking livestock with fire-heated marks to identify ownership has origins in Ancient times, with use dating back to the Ancient Egyptians. In English Lexicon, the word "brand" originally meant anything hot or burning, such as a firebrand, a burning stick. By the European Middle Ages it commonly identified the process of burning a mark into stock animals with thick hides, such as cattle, so as to identify ownership under animus revertendi. The practice became particularly widespread in nations with large cattle grazing regions, such as Spain.

These European customs were imported to the Americas and were further refined by the vaquero tradition in what today is the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. In the American West, a branding iron consisted of an iron rod with a simple symbol or mark which cowboys heated in a fire. After the branding iron turned red-hot, the cowboy pressed the branding iron against the hide of the cow. The unique brand meant that cattle owned by multiple ranches could then graze freely together on the open range. Cowboys could then separate the cattle at round-up time for driving to market. [from Wikipedia]

Source: From the finding aid for WC029


  • Statesmen -- United States -- 20th century. -- lcsh.