Biography and History

John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), was a graduate of the Princeton Class of 1908. He went on to have a long and distinguished public career with significant impact upon the formulation of United States foreign policies, culminating with the position of Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Dulles was especially involved with efforts to establish world peace after World War I, the role of the United States in world governance, and Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Source: From the finding aid for AC351

Biography and History

John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), the fifty-third Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, had a long and distinguished public career with significant impact upon the formulation of United States foreign policies. He was especially involved with efforts to establish world peace after World War I, the role of the United States in world governance, and Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Dulles was born on February 25, 1888 in Washington, D.C. to Allen Macy Dulles and Edith Foster. He attended Princeton University, graduating in 1908. During this time, he had his first experience with foreign affairs, serving as secretary to his grandfather, John Watson Foster, during the Second Hague Peace Conference in 1907. After graduation, he studied philosophy and international law for a year at the Sorbonne in Paris, and then attended the George Washington University Law School, earning his LL.B. in 1911. Dulles married Janet Avery on June 26, 1912 and they had two sons, John Walsh and Avery, and one daughter, Lilias Pomeroy (Mrs. Robert Hinshaw).

After his graduation from law school, Dulles joined the prestigious New York law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell, which specialized in international law. He worked there from 1911 to 1949, rising to become a senior partner. During World War I, Dulles served as assistant to the chairman of the War Trade Board, and then as counsel to the reparations section of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, and as a member of the American delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919, serving as Bernard Baruch's chief legal advisor on the Reparations Commission and also serving on the Supreme Economic Council. After returning to Sullivan and Cromwell, he continued to be active in organizations concerned with world affairs, and to express his views on the United States' role in the world through speeches, articles, and the book War, Peace and Change published in 1939. In 1941 he accepted the chairmanship of the Commission to Study the Bases of a Just and Durable Peace, established by the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America. Dulles presented their "Six Pillars of Peace" plan to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1943, as a plan for establishing international cooperation for peace. Throughout his career, Dulles continued to be a prominent lay spokesman for the Protestant church.

Dulles became increasingly involved in politics at the onset of the Cold War. He represented the United States at the San Francisco organizational conference for the United Nations in 1945, and in many subsequent sessions of the United Nations General Assembly. He served as New York's junior senator from 1949 to 1950, replacing Senator Robert F. Wagner, who resigned due to ill health. Dulles then served as special representative of President Truman, with the rank of ambassador, negotiating the Japanese Peace Treaty of 1951 and the Australian, New Zealand, Philippine and Japanese Security Treaties of 1950-1951. During his negotiations, he observed the growing antagonism between the United States and Soviet Union which subsequently hardened his anti-Communist stance.

In 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Dulles Secretary of State. His tenure was marked by a close working relationship with the President, staunch anti-Communism, and a philosophy of "collective security" which led to numerous mutual defense treaties. Recognizing that NATO would only provide for the defense of Western Europe, Dulles initiated the Manila Conference in 1954 that resulted in the formation of the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), an agreement between eight nations for the defense of Southeast Asia, and was influential in establishing the 1955 Baghdad Pact for the defense of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. He was also known for enunciating a policy of "massive retaliation," whereby any attack on U.S. interests anywhere in the world by the Soviet Union or China would be met with an attack on those countries, including the possible use of nuclear weapons.

Several notable international events marked Dulles's tenure. In 1955, in an effort to induce President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt to support the West, Dulles offered to provide financing for the construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River to produce electrical power and for irrigation. However, Dulles withdrew the offer in July 1956 after receiving protests from United States cotton interests and Jewish-Americans, and after Nasser purchased weapons from Czechoslovakia, suggesting he was aligning with the Soviets. Nasser responded by nationalizing the British-owned Suez Canal. Without notifying the United States, Britain, France and Israel invaded Egypt in October 1956 but failed to capture the canal. Dulles condemned the action at the United Nations, and under economic pressure from the United States, the allies withdrew by early 1957.

Concurrent with the Suez crisis, an uprising in Hungary resulted in the establishment of a new government committed to withdrawing the country from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviets responded with military force, leading the Hungarians to appeal to the United Nations for aid, pleas that were ignored, allowing the Soviets to subsequently crush the revolt and maintain their grip on Eastern Europe.

In 1958, tensions between Communist China and Taiwan threatened to break out into war when Communist China renewed their shelling of the islands of Jinmen and Mazu and the United States avowed not to appease Mao Zedong. Dulles convinced Taiwan's Chiang Kai-shek to renounce the use of force against mainland China and to withdraw some troops from Jinmen and Mazu, and the Chinese ceased their shelling. Also in 1958, the Soviets threatened to sign a peace treaty with East Germany, terminating the joint occupation of Germany established after World War II, unless a satisfactory agreement was reached within six months. In what would be his last international trip as Secretary of State, Dulles traveled to Europe to reassure Chancellor Konrad Adenauer that the United States would maintain its commitment to West Germany. Eventually, the Soviets agreed to negotiate without a deadline.

Stricken with cancer, Dulles resigned as Secretary of State in April of 1959. He died on May 24, 1959 in Washington, D.C.

Source: From the finding aid for MC016

Biography and History

John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), the fifty-third Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, had a long and distinguished public career with significant impact upon the formulation of United States foreign policies. He was especially involved with efforts to establish world peace after World War I, the role of the United States in world governance, and Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Source: From the finding aid for MC018

  • John Foster Dulles Collection. 1943-1974 (inclusive).

    Call Number: AC351

    John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), was a graduate of the Princeton Class of 1908 who served as Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The John Foster Dulles Collection consists of a small group of materials documenting Dulles' connection to Princeton, including materials on his undergraduate career and the Dulles Library.

  • John Foster Dulles Collection. 1943-1974 (inclusive).

    Call Number: AC351

    John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), was a graduate of the Princeton Class of 1908 who served as Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The John Foster Dulles Collection consists of a small group of materials documenting Dulles' connection to Princeton, including materials on his undergraduate career and the Dulles Library.

  • Robert Warren Anthony Papers. 1937-1959 (inclusive).

    Call Number: C0380

    The Robert Warren Anthony Papers consists of diaries, notes, reports, correspondence, and photographs of the American Presbyterian clergyman Robert Warren Anthony (1880-1960, Princeton Class of 1902).

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Organizational Matters Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.01

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Project Files Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.02

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Subject Files Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.03

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Legal Case Files Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.04

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Printed Materials Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.05

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Records: Subgroup 2, Audiovisual Materials Series. 1947-1995 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC001.02.06

    The American Civil Liberties Union Records document the activities of the Union in protecting individual rights from 1920 through 1995. The files contain materials on freedom of speech, expression, and association; due process of law; equality before the law; legal case files; and organizational records. Within these categories files reflect subject areas such as academic freedom, censorship, racial discrimination, aliens' rights, privacy concerns, labor concerns, amnesty, and government loyalty and security. The files reflect work on litigation, advocacy and public policy, and subject files on various areas of interest connected with civil liberties. Materials include correspondence, court documents, memoranda, printed matter, minutes, reports, briefs, and legal files. Also included are materials from ACLU affiliate organizations, and the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.

  • Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers. 1893-1973 (inclusive), 1916-1973 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC002

    The Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers consist of correspondence, notebooks, memoranda, material from 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, writings especially in relation to Peace and Counterpeace and Tito and Goliath, diaries, scrapbooks, and photographs. The papers document Armstrong's career as editor of Foreign Affairs, his participation in the activities of the Council on Foreign Relations, and his professional involvement and interest in foreign policy from World War I through the 1970s. Included is correspondence with many well known political and literary figures of the time period. Some materials of a personal nature are included but the bulk of the papers relates to Armstrong's professional life. The papers also document Armstrong's participation in many philanthropic activities associated with Yugoslavia.

  • John Foster Dulles Papers. 1860-1988 (inclusive), 1945-1960 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC016

    John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), the fifty-third Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, had a long and distinguished public career with significant impact upon the formulation of United States foreign policies. He was especially involved with efforts to establish world peace after World War I, the role of the United States in world governance, and Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Dulles papers document his entire public career and his influence on the formation of United States foreign policy, especially for the period when he was Secretary of State, and include his correspondence files, as well as his writings, reports, and memorabilia.

  • John Foster Dulles Papers. 1860-1988 (inclusive), 1945-1960 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC016

    John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), the fifty-third Secretary of State of the United States for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, had a long and distinguished public career with significant impact upon the formulation of United States foreign policies. He was especially involved with efforts to establish world peace after World War I, the role of the United States in world governance, and Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Dulles papers document his entire public career and his influence on the formation of United States foreign policy, especially for the period when he was Secretary of State, and include his correspondence files, as well as his writings, reports, and memorabilia.

  • John Foster Dulles Oral History Collection. 1964-1967 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC017

    An American lawyer, born in Washington, D.C., Dulles served as counsel to the American commission to negotiate peace (1918-1919), member of the reparations commission and supreme economic council (1919), American representative at the Berlin debt conference (1933), and as United States secretary of state (1953-1959). Consists of 282 transcripts of tape-recorded interviews concerning John Foster Dulles (Princeton Class of 1908) and his times by men and women who knew and worked with him

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Library files relating to John Foster Dulles. 1951-1959 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC018

    Consists of copies of correspondence, telephone conversations, memoranda, messages, statements, speeches, treaty drafts, and other material in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas, relating to John Foster Dulles (Princeton Class of 1908) during his term as secretary of state (1951-1959), which have been declassified by the General Services Administration from 1979 to the present

  • Allen W. Dulles Papers. 1845-1971 (inclusive), 1918-1969 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC019

    The Allen W. Dulles Papers contains correspondence, speeches, writings, and photographs documenting the life of this lawyer, diplomat, businessman, and spy. One of the longest-serving directors of the Central Intelligence Agency (1953-1961), he also served in a key intelligence post in Bern, Switzerland during World War II, as well as on the Warren Commission.

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower White House photographs. 1950-1960 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC044

    Consists of White House photographs (1950-1960) that are mainly of President Eisenhower on various public occasions.

  • John Foster Dulles State Department Records. 1953-1959 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC074

    Consists of 192 reels of microfilm, totalling 131,000 frames, of selected U.S. State Department records from the years Dulles served as secretary of state, 1953-1959, under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

  • H. Alexander Smith Papers. 1897-1966 (inclusive), 1920-1966 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC120

    H. Alexander Smith served as the executive secretary of Princeton University and was later elected to the United States Senate representing New Jersey. Smith made contributions to United States foreign policy while serving on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The bulk of documentation focuses on his tenure in the Senate and the period immediately after his retirement; reports, correspondence, and printed material from his work at Princeton are also included. The papers contain diaries, correspondence, speeches, notes, photographs, and memorabilia.

  • Philip A. Crowl Collection on John Foster Dulles. 1873-1965 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC164

    Philip A. Crowl (1914-1991) was a military historian who taught at universities and conducted research for the United States government, and also served as an intelligence officer. Crowl's Collection on John Foster Dulles is composed of Crowl's research materials for an unwritten biography on Dulles, including photocopies of correspondence, oral histories, and other materials about Dulles's entire career, as well as his family and personal life.

  • Ann Whitman Papers on John Foster Dulles. 1952-1959 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC172

    Ann Whitman (1908-1991) was personal secretary to President Dwight D. Eisenhower during both of his administrations and later served as chief of staff to Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller. Whitman's Papers on John Foster Dulles consist of photocopies of a portion of Whitman's files concerning secretaries of state John Foster Dulles and Christian A. Herter. The majority of the files consist of correspondence of John Foster Dulles, often with President Eisenhower or United States government officials, and also include a small amount of similar material of Christian A. Herter.

  • American Civil Liberties Union Washington, D.C. Office Records. 1948-1970 (inclusive).

    Call Number: MC190

    This collection consists of the papers received and generated by the staff of the Washington, D.C. Office of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) during the 1950s and 1960s. The ACLU is a leading defender of civil liberties in the United States. Founded in 1920, it has been the recipient of sharp criticism for its willingness to defend unpopular causes and has participated in a majority of the landmark cases to come before the Supreme Court in the twentieth century. The Washington Office's primary responsibility is to monitor legislative issues. In the 1950s the office worked against abuses caused by McCarthyism, including loyalty oath requirements, powers of legislative investigating committees, and censorship of free speech and expression. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the office focused on civil rights issues and the defense of alternative means of self expression. The Washington Office was also deeply involved with defending the civil liberties of those associated with the federal government and its agencies.

  • Derso and Kelen Collection. 1922-1982 (inclusive), 1922-1970 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC205

    The Derso and Kelen Collection consists of correspondence, writings, published material, and over 900 cartoons and caricatures in varying media ranging from pencil sketches and ink drawings to richly-hued watercolors and limited edition lithographic portfolios created by the Hungarian caricaturists and political satirists Alois Derso and Emery Kelen. The vast majority of the works were produced between 1920 and 1950, the active period of collaboration between Derso and Kelen.

  • Eleanor L. Dulles Papers. 1863-1989 (inclusive), 1955-1989 (bulk).

    Call Number: MC229

    Eleanor L. Dulles (1895-1996) was an economic specialist for the U.S. State Department from 1942 to 1962. She was most prominently known for her work in rebuilding West Berlin from 1952 to 1960. Dulles's papers document her political writings after her retirement from the State Department in 1962, as well as her fundraising work with the John Foster Dulles Memorial Fund, and include drafts of her articles and books, topical files, and some correspondence.