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Start Over You searched for: Date range 1945 to 1949 Remove constraint Date range: <span class="from" data-blrl-begin="1945">1945</span> to <span class="to" data-blrl-end="1949">1949</span>

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Subseries 3: Legislation, 1851-1994

38 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 2: Subject Files, Subseries 3: Legislation (1851-1994) consists of correspondence, articles, memoranda, and Congressional bills, resolutions, reports, and testimony relating to a wide variety of legislative and administrative issues of concern to the AAIA. These are embodied in sometimes voluminous subject files and an extensive series of memoranda containing synopses of governmental activities impinging on Native Americans. The bulk of the latter were prepared for general circulation by the AAIA's general counsel. The scope of this subseries reflects the importance the AAIA attached to effecting change in Washington, be it in a supportive or an adversarial role. Leaders of the Association such as President Oliver La Farge, General Counsel Richard Schifter, and Executive Director William Byler took an interest in everything from the implications of Alaskan statehood to the protection and repatriation of Indian remains and artifacts to the transfer of civil and criminal jurisdiction from federal to state authorities. Attention was given to measures affecting every tribe, such as the far-reaching Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, which sought to give Native Americans a meaningful say in programs intended for their benefit, as well as to localized initiatives, such as the resolution politicizing the superintendency of the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma in 1935.
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Subseries 4: Legal Cases, 1934-1991

36 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 2: Subject Files, Subseries 4: Legal Cases (1934-1991) consists of correspondence, briefs, pleadings, transcripts, and clippings dating largely from the 1950s to the 1980s and concerning the various legal cases in which the AAIA was interested or involved, whether through direct representation or through the filing of amicus curiae -- "friend of the court" -- briefs. The material in this subseries was generated in significant measure by staff attorney Bertram Hirsch and General Counsel Arthur Lazarus, Jr., though the activities of attorneys such as Richard Schifter, Lawrence Rappoport, and William Lamb and executive directors such as La Verne Madigan, William Byler, and Steven Unger are also documented. While some files reveal the strategy employed by the Association in selecting cases and offer insights into the tactics it pursued within and without the courtroom, others consist solely of court related documents. This subseries clearly demonstrates the shifting focus of the AAIA's legal concerns: from matters of criminal law in the 1950s and 1960s to matters of family law in the 1970s and 1980s, a practical extension of its commitment to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. The precise success rate of the Association's legal activities cannot be readily determined given the fact that many files fail to cover cases from their initiation, through the long appellate process, to their ultimate conclusion. However, as favorable correspondence and court opinions show, the AAIA could take satisfaction in many judgements.
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Subseries 5: Programs, 1927-1994

22 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 2: Subject Files, Subseries 5: Programs (1927-1994) documents a number of significant activities undertaken by the AAIA to enhance the lives of Native Americans and fulfill its mission, namely, to "sustain and perpetuate their cultures and languages; protect their sovereignty, their constitutional, legal and human rights; their natural resources; and improve their health, education, economic and community development." The programs represented in this subseries vary widely in structure and focus and attest to the Association's breadth of interest and organizational sophistication, tempered, at times, by constrained resources or human failings. While some of these programs were pursued concurrently, they also illustrate an evolution in the AAIA's agenda and environment. In the 1920s and 1930s, for example, the provision of nursing services to the Pueblo and Navajo was a major preoccupation. In the 1970s and 1980s, in contrast, maintaining the integrity of Native American families and communities through new national and local child welfare policies was a high priority.
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Subseries 6: Publications and Circulars, 1924-1994

5 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 2: Subject Files, Subseries 6: Publications and Circulars (1924-1994) consists of a variety of printed matter designed for general consumption, ranging from substantial newsletters and bulletins to one- or two-page letters and releases. The material in this subseries offers readily accessible insights into the evolving program of the AAIA, the issues which preoccupied it, and the climate in which it operated. The picture formed by these publications and circulars is a comprehensive one, notwithstanding a number of missing issues. As Oliver La Farge's biographer Robert Hecht observed of the AAIA's primary mouthpiece, Indian Affairs, "Almost every major event in Indian affairs (and many minor ones) since 1949 has been reported in the newsletter." Among the myriad topics addressed in these years were the rights of Alaskan natives, the Navajo rehabilitation program, the termination of federal responsibilities for Native Americans, the "virtual legal lynching" of South Dakotan Indian Loyd Grandsinger, the recognition and protection of Florida's Miccosukee, the death of Oliver La Farge, the preservation of Nevada's Pyramid Lake, and the water rights of central Arizona's tribes.
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Series 2: Subject Files, 1851-1995

332 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 2: Subject Files (1851-1995) document the broad issues, such as child welfare or economic development, and the individuals and national entities with which the AAIA dealt; the hundreds of tribes, local organizations, and state-based issues in which it took an interest; the federal legislative and administrative actions which concerned its constituents; the litigation it pursued or monitored; a number of major activities it undertook on behalf on Native Americans; and the newsletters, brochures, and other printed matter with which it publicized its agenda.
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Subseries 2: Hildegarde B. Forbes, 1927-1991

13 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 3: Personal Files, Subseries 2: Hildegarde B. Forbes (1927-1991) consists chiefly of correspondence and printed matter from the files of Hildegarde Boughton Forbes (1894-1991). Raised in affluent surroundings, she gamely faced the hardships of a nurse's aide at Fort MacPherson, Georgia during and after the First World War. In 1922 she married Henry Forbes, whose papers are located in Series 3, Subseries 1, and it was at his urging that she formed her connection with the AAIA. Elected to its Board of Directors in 1961, she soon became an influential presence. While she served the Association in a variety of capacities, including as co-chairman of its Ways and Means Committee, and contributed generously to its coffers, it was as its secretary that she left her most indelible mark. Her primary duty in this position, which she occupied from 1964 until failing eyesight compelled her to resign in 1980, was the taking of minutes, both at meetings of the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee. Her handiwork can be found in Series 1, Subseries 1 (Administration).
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Subseries 3: Oliver La Farge, 1939-1963

4 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 3: Personal Files, Subseries 3: Oliver La Farge (1939-1963) is largely composed of correspondence and reports relating to La Farge's presidency of the AAIA, an organization with which he was synonymous. La Farge (1901-1963), an anthropologist and Pulitzer Prize winning author, dedicated half his life to the Association and the causes it championed. Born into a cultured New England family, he first encountered Native Americans when, as a student at Harvard University, he accompanied an archaeological expedition to the Navajo reservation. It was a seminal experience. As he would later say, "the Indians got me in 1921." Further trips to the Southwest followed, as did anthropological expeditions to Mexico and Guatemala on behalf of Tulane and Columbia Universities. In 1930 he was elected to the Board of Directors of the Eastern Association on Indian Affairs, as the AAIA was then known, and, in 1933, accepted its presidency. He held this post until his death, with the exception of the years between 1943 and 1948, an interregnum necessitated by his appointment as historical officer for the United States Army's Air Transport Command.
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Subseries 4: Corinna Lindon Smith, 1932-1965

4 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 3: Personal Files, Subseries 4: Corinna Lindon Smith (1932-1965) consists largely of correspondence from the files of this long-standing member and sometime vice president of the AAIA. Smith (1875-1965) could take pride in a connection with the Association reaching back to its beginnings, -- she was elected to the Board of Directors of the Eastern Association on Indian Affairs in 1925 -- but the material in this subseries corresponds almost wholly with her latter-day tenure on this body, a period framed by her re-election in 1953 and her death.
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Subseries 5: Alden Stevens, 1941-1971

3 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 3: Personal Files, Subseries 5: Alden Stevens (1941-1971) is composed primarily of correspondence and printed matter relating to Stevens' long association with the AAIA and, in particular, to his tenure as its president. A graduate of the University of Chicago, Stevens (1907-1968) was a well-travelled writer and museum exhibition designer whose assignments took him to numerous reservations. In 1957 he was appointed Field Director of Mobil Travel Guide. It was President Oliver La Farge who invited him to join the American Association on Indian Affairs, as the AAIA was then known. Despite "disliking him intensely at first," Stevens agreed and, in 1941, was elected to its Board of Directors. In 1946 he assumed the duties of secretary, and, in 1964, following La Farge's death, he was elected president, a position he held for the remainder of his life. Stevens was under no illusions as to the nature of his office. As he put it in 1967, "Oliver once said to me 'you know, Alden, this work is like a Venus fly-trap -- you feel yourself encircled and after a while you can't get out of it.'... I have no intention, if I can help it, of dying in this fly-trap, but I'm not going to back out until I see the Association in a really intelligent, forward-moving posture."
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Series 4: Photographs (1928-1992) captures many of the personalities and settings documented elsewhere in the collection. The vast majority of these photographs, which are largely black and white, measure 8″ x 10″ or less. Only a modest number predate the Second World War, and many, regrettably, are undated and unidentified. The oversized photographs box contains a file entitled "Derogatory Images," which contains two photographs of a toy called "Nutty Mad Indian," one of many offensive products or depictions protested by the AAIA.
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Series 20: October 2016 Addition, 1925-2016

10 boxes
SOME ONLINE CONTENT
Series 20: October 2016 Addition documents the AAIA's involvement in Indian child welfare, sacred lands advocacy, and other issues. In addition, the series contains records of AAIA's fundraising activities, scholarship program, and materials AAIA designated as "historical documents." Also included are four boxes of photographs from various AAIA events spanning four decades, many of which originated from AAIA's Sisseton field office.