Contents and Arrangement

Pope Clement XI, 1700-1721

1 item

Collection Overview

Collection Description & Creator Information


This collection consists of twelve papal seals, including seals for Pope Paul III and Pope Urban VIII. Papal seals were made of lead instead of sealing wax. They were attached to the bottom of documents by chords and called bullas, which caused papal documents to be referred to as papal bulls. The seals were collected by Ernest Cushing Richardson, a former University Librarian.

Collection History

Archival Appraisal Information:

No materials were separated from the collection during 2017 processing.

Access & Use

Access Restrictions:

Open for research.

Conditions for Reproduction and Use:

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. No further photoduplication of copies of material in the collection can be made when Princeton University Library does not own the original. Inquiries regarding publishing material from the collection should be directed to RBSC Public Services staff through the Ask Us! form. The library has no information on the status of literary rights in the collection and researchers are responsible for determining any questions of copyright.

Credit this material:

Pope Clement XI; Ernest Cushing Richardson Collection of Papal Seals, C1516, Manuscripts Division, Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library

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Storage Note:
Firestone Library (mss): Box 1