Contents and Arrangement Expanded View

Collection Overview

Fischer, Louis (1896-1970) and Fischer, Markoosha.
Louis Fischer Papers
Public Policy Papers
Permanent URL:
1890-1977 (mostly 1935-1969)
68 boxes
Storage Note:
  • Mudd Manuscript Library (scamudd): Box 1-68


The Louis Fischer Papers include correspondence, interviews, articles and notes, lectures and speeches, photographs, and audiovisual materials that document his life as a journalist, writer, and commentator on international affairs. They also include the papers of his wife, Bertha Markoosha Fischer, an author in her own right, as well as family correspondence and papers. In the latter part of his life Fischer was affiliated with of the Institute for Advanced Study (1959-1961) and Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (1961-1969).

Collection Description & Creator Information

Scope and Contents

This collection consists of correspondence, interviews, articles, notes, lectures, speeches, photographs, and audiovisual materials that document Fischer's life as a journalist, writer, commentator on international affairs, and a founder of the Liberal Party (1944). The collection includes the papers of Fischer's wife, Bertha "Markoosha" Mark Fischer, as well as family correspondence and papers. General correspondence focuses on the Soviet Union, India, and Spain during the Spanish Civil War and is primarily personal in nature. Notable correspondents and interviewees include Svetlana Allilueva, Georgii Chicherin, Jawarhalal Nehru, Eleanor Roosevelt, President Sukarno of Indonesia, Josep Broz Tito, Sumner Welles, and Fischer's sons, George and Victor. Fischer's service in Palestine, early attempts at making his 1950 book on Gandhi into a motion picture, his ideas for undermining Stalin's position in Soviet public opinion, and his early life and life in Princeton are well documented. Other important correspondence documents Fischer's impressions of interviewees, his involvement in the Spanish Civil War, and relationships with publishers and the media. Writings contain Fischer's articles for magazines and lectures, speeches, reviews and notes. Interviews and conversations are with politicians and groups of people Fischer met in his overseas travel. Financial and administrative records include tax returns and appointment books. Clippings and reviews document Fischer's public life and book reviews. Miscellaneous items relate to Fischer's life and include his early research papers on the Soviet Union. Photographs and films document Fischer's early work and travel and the Fischer family, and sound recordings include Fischer's talks and interviews.

The Markoosha Fischer Papers document her life in Europe as well as her time in the United States and include family and other correspondence, writings, and personal materials. Notably, Markoosha's papers contain material relating to her own books, which were based on her experiences in the Soviet Union and in Germany where she worked in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief Committee (IRRC) between 1948 and 1951. Her unpublished manuscripts include a full account of her experiences as a secretary and translator at the 1922 Genoa Conference, with a description of the Russian officials she met.

Collection Creator Biography:


Biography of Louis Fischer

Louis Fischer was born on February 29, 1896 in Philadelphia, son of David, a fish and fruit peddler, and Shifrah (nee Kantzapolsky). He attended the Philadelphia School of Pedagogy (affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania) from 1914 to 1916, then taught public school. From 1917 to 1920 he served as a volunteer in the Jewish Legion, a military unit recruited by the British army and spent 15 months in Palestine (1919-1920). After this military service, he worked for a brief period for a news agency in New York where he met the Russian-born Bertha "Markoosha" Mark (1890?-1977). Markoosha had been in New York since late 1916, first as a pianist touring with a group of Russian musicians; then holding various secretarial and translator jobs, sometimes working for Soviet government officials.

In 1921 Markoosha went to Berlin, Germany, to work for a former Soviet employer. Louis joined her a few months later. Aiming to get journalistic experience, he started contributing to the New York Evening Post as a European correspondent. In early 1922 he moved to Moscow. Markoosha, who had been working as an interpreter to Soviet delegations at conferences in Genoa and the Hague, joined him in September. In November, they married. Shortly thereafter, Markoosha returned to Berlin, while Louis stayed in Moscow. Their son George was born in May 1923, followed by Victor one year later. Markoosha stayed in Berlin with the boys until 1927, when she started working for the new Jewish farm colonies in the Ukraine. It was not until 1928, after Markoosha and the boys moved to Moscow, that the Fischers lived under one roof, though Louis often traveled thereafter.

Louis had been working for The Nation as special European correspondent since 1923, and contributing articles to foreign papers, often selling the same article more than once. To supplement his earnings, Fischer traveled to the United States every year to give lectures on the Soviet Union. While living in Moscow, he sympathized strongly with the Soviet regime. In 1926 his first book, Oil Imperialism: The International Struggle for Petroleum, was published; it described the international struggle for Russian petroleum concessions. The two-volume study The Soviets in World Affairs (1930) followed and became a standard reference in its day. Between 1931 and 1935, he published three more books on the Soviet Union. In 1936, the year of Stalin's first purge trial, Fischer went to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, where he was an active supporter of the Republican anti-fascist regime, and briefly joined the International Brigades.

In 1938 Fischer decided not to return to the Soviet Union. However, Markoosha and the boys, still living in Moscow as Soviet citizens, were denied permission to leave the country until Eleanor Roosevelt personally intervened. Reunited in the United States in spring 1939, the family first settled in New York—although Louis chose to live by himself in a hotel. Very soon it was obvious that their marriage was over, but until the late 1950s Louis and Markoosha stayed in close touch, visited and wrote each other, often met with the children together, and commented on each other's manuscripts. They never divorced.

Louis encouraged Markoosha to write, and her autobiography, My Lives in Russia, appeared in 1944. In it, she tried to explain the life of the Russian people and the early appeal of Communism to her. She wrote articles and reviews, two novels (1948 and 1956), and in 1962 Reunion in Moscow, a Russian Revisits Her Country. In 1948-1949 she returned to Germany, working in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief Committee (IRRC). In 1949, because of ill health, she declined to work as a translator at the Nuremberg trials. However, she worked again for the IRRC in 1950-1951.

In 1941 Louis's Men and Politics: An Autobiography appeared, an account of the developments in Europe between the two World Wars, and his personal encounters with politicians, correspondents, and political activists. During the Second World War, Fischer continued to report on European politics, but he also became interested in the cause of Indian independence. A guest of Mohandas Gandhi in 1942, he soon authored A Week with Gandhi (1942). He traveled to India several more times and his biography The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1950) was the basis of the film Gandhi (1982).

Fischer's other major field of interest remained the Soviet Union and its foreign policy. His first new book after his family moved to the United States appeared in 1940 and dealt with the Nazi-Bolshevik Pact of 1939. In Communist and some left wing circles he was criticized for disloyalty to the Soviet Union. In June 1945 he broke publicly with The Nation, with which he had been associated for 22 years, accusing them of a 'misleading' representation of current events, and employing double standards, especially concerning the Soviet Union. He began writing for small anti-Communist liberal magazines such as The Progressive, as a foreign correspondent and commentator on international politics, focusing on Europe and Asia, especially Communism in the Soviet Union and China; imperialism; and the problems of emerging nations. He was one of two American contributors to The God That Failed (1949), an autobiographical collection of essays written by ex-Communists and disillusioned fellow travelers. Fischer took offense when he was labeled an ex-Communist, because he had never joined a Communist Party, having only been sympathetic to the Soviet cause. In a note for a biographical entry, he referred to himself as a "left-of-center liberal who favors drastic social reform to improve living conditions" and an "active anti-imperialist." He was also called a "liberal internationalist," and his critical but utilitarian-humanitarian beliefs placed him among those liberals who have been called "believing skeptics." His publications about the Soviet Union include studies of Soviet foreign relations and biographies of Stalin (1952) and Lenin (1964), the latter winning the National Book Award. (A complete list of his books can be found in the Appendix.)

Fischer's life of free-lance writing, lecturing and extensive traveling settled down with his appointment as a research associate at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in December 1958. In 1961 he became a lecturer at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School, where he taught Soviet-American relations and Soviet foreign politics, until his death on January 15, 1970.

Fischer, Markoosha.

Bertha "Markoosha" Fischer

Bertha "Markoosha" Fischer was a Russian-born translator, interpretor, and writer. She married Louis Fischer, an American journalist and writer. With Fischer and their children she lived and worked in the Soviet Union, New York, and Berlin.

Markoosha wrote her autobiography, My Lives in Russia, which appeared in 1944. In it, she tried to explain the life of the Russian people and the early appeal of Communism to her. She wrote articles and reviews, two novels (1948 and 1956), and in 1962 Reunion in Moscow, a Russian Revisits Her Country. Between 1948 and 1951 she worked in displaced persons camps for the International Rescue and Relief
 Committee (IRRC).

Collection History


The papers were donated by George and Victor Fischer in 1970 , following the wishes of their father. The papers of Markoosha Fischer, including family papers, were added after her death in 1977.

One folder of photographs and a letter to Fischer from K.C. Agarwala were donated in January, 2019 by Deirdre (Randall) Petree (ML.2019.006).


No appraisal information is available.


These papers were processed with the generous support of George Fischer.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Helene van Rossum in 2000, with the assistance of Desmond Dorsey '99, Bev Prewitt '02, Lindsey Tripp '04. Finding aid written by Helene van Rossum in 2000. Finding aid updated by Phoebe Nobles in February, 2019.

Access & Use

Conditions Governing Access

Collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Use

Single copies may be made for research purposes. To cite or publish quotations that fall within Fair Use, as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission is required. For instances beyond Fair Use, any copyright vested in the donor has passed to The Trustees of Princeton University and researchers do not need to obtain permission, complete any forms, or receive a letter to move forward with use of donor-created materials within the collection. For materials in the collection not created by the donor, or where the material is not an original, the copyright is likely not held by the University. In these instances, it is the responsibility of the researcher to determine whether any permissions related to copyright, privacy, publicity, or any other rights are necessary for their intended use of the Library's materials, and to obtain all required permissions from any existing rights holders, if they have not already done so. Princeton University Library's Special Collections does not charge any permission or use fees for the publication of images of materials from our collections. The department does request that its collections be properly cited and images credited. More detailed information can be found on the Copyright, Credit and Citations Guidelines page on our website. If you have a question about who owns the copyright for an item, you may request clarification by contacting us through the Ask Us! form.

Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements

For preservation reasons, original analog and digital media may not be read or played back in the reading room. Users may visually inspect physical media but may not remove it from its enclosure. All analog audiovisual media must be digitized to preservation-quality standards prior to use. Audiovisual digitization requests are processed by an approved third-party vendor. Please note, the transfer time required can be as little as several weeks to as long as several months and there may be financial costs associated with the process. Requests should be directed through the Ask Us Form.

Credit this material:

Louis Fischer Papers; Public Policy Papers, Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library

Permanent URL:
Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library
65 Olden Street
Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
(609) 258-6345
Storage Note:
  • Mudd Manuscript Library (scamudd): Box 1-68

Find More


Fischer, Louis. Men and Politics, An Autobiography. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1940. Fischer, Markoosha. My Lives in Russia. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1944. Raucher, Alan. "Beyond the God that Failed: Louis Fischer, Liberal Internationalist". The Historian 44, No. 2 (1982): 174-189.

Subject Terms:
Anti-communist movements.
Biographers -- United States -- 20th century.
Communism -- Soviet Union.
Foreign correspondents -- United States -- 20th century.
Jewish Legion -- Photographs.
Journalists -- Biography -- 20th century.
Journalists -- United States -- 20th century.
Liberalism -- United States -- 20th century.
Motion picture producers and directors.
Refugee camps -- Germany.
Revolutionaries -- Russia -- Anecdotes.
Women authors -- United States -- 20th century.
Women communists -- Germany -- 1917-
World War, 1939-1945 -- Journalists -- Correspondence.
Genre Terms:
Audiovisual materials.
Photographs, Original.
Congress for Cultural Freedom.
Liberal Party (U.S.)
Genoa Conference (1922)
Great Britain. Army. Jewish Legion
Allilueva, Svetlana, 1926-2011 (1926-2011)
Chicherin, G. (Georgiĭ), 1872-1936
Fischer, George, 1923-
Fischer, Viktor, 1924-
Gándhí, Mahátma, 1869-1948
‏Lenin, Vladimir Ilʹich, 1870-1924‏
Nehru، ‏ Jawaharlal, 1889-1964
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962.
Soekarno, 1901-1970
Stalin, Joseph, 1878-1953.
Tito, Josip Broz, 1892-1980
Welles, Sumner, 1892-1961
Europe -- History -- 20th century.
India -- Politics and government -- 1919-1947.
India -- Politics and government -- 1947-
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939.
Soviet Union -- Description and travel -- 20th century.
Soviet Union -- Emigration and immigration -- 20th century.
Soviet Union -- Foreign relations -- United States -- 20th century.
Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1917-
Soviet Union -- Social conditions -- 20th century
United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union -- 20th century.
United States -- Foreign relations -- 20th century.