- Collection Overview
- Collection Description & Creator Information
- Access & Use
- Collection History
- Find Related Materials
- Lockwood, William W. (William Wirt), 1906-1978
- Princeton University. Library. Special Collections
- William W. Lockwood Papers
- Public Policy Papers
- Permanent URL:
- 5 boxes and 1 folder
- Storage Note:
- Mudd Manuscript Library (mudd): Box 1-5
The William W. Lockwood Papers document the American Institute of Pacific Relations and Lockwood's activities within the organization during the McCarthy era. A significant amount of the collection concerns the investigation of the Institute of Pacific Relations by Senators Joseph McCarthy and Pat McCarran. The collection also documents U.S.-Far East relations, particularly U.S.-Japanese trade and the Japanese textile industry.
Collection Description & Creator Information
The bulk of the William W. Lockwood Papers relate to the American Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR). These papers specifically document the IPR and Lockwood's activities within the IPR during the McCarthy era, and include minutes, correspondence, conference reports and IPR research projects and publications. A significant amount of the IPR papers concern the investigation of the IPR by Senator Joseph McCarthy and Senator Pat McCarran and the subsequent 1952 Senate Judiciary Subcommittee hearings on the alleged Communist activities of the organization and some of its members. The collection also documents Lockwood's interests and involvements in U.S.-Far East relations, as well as his research and study of U.S.-Japanese trade and the Japanese textile industry. Also included are a small number of personal items, dealing primarily with his service in World War II and his involvement in the Amerasia case, as well as Lockwood's FBI file.
The William W. Lockwood Papers are divided into three series. The series are arranged alphabetically by form, then chronologically except for correspondence, which is arranged alphabetically by correspondent.
- Collection Creator Biography:
William Wirt Lockwood was considered a leading authority in the field of Far Eastern affairs. He was born in Shanghai on February 24, 1906, where his father served as General Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from DePauw University in 1927, received his doctorate from Harvard and went on to teach at Bowdoin College from 1929 to 1930. In the late 1930s, he was a lecturer in economics at the University of Michigan's summer sessions.
From 1935 until 1940, Lockwood was the Research Secretary of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, and between 1941 and 1943 he served as Executive Secretary. The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) was founded in Honolulu in 1925 at a conference of religious leaders, scholars and businessmen from various countries of the Pacific area. The organization grew out of the need for greater knowledge and candid discussion of the problems of Asia and East-West relations. The IPR consisted of national councils in ten countries, with each council being autonomous and responsible for its own work. Together the councils cooperated in programs of research, publication and conferences. The IPR's research program received generous support from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation, enabling the institute to disseminate information about Asia in the United States and in other countries.
Lockwood was involved in a number of government investigations during his tenure with the IPR. From 1937 until 1943 he served on the editorial board of Amerasia, a foreign relations magazine that grew out of the initial IPR conference. Although not an official IPR publication, Amerasia shared office space with the IPR, and many of its editors and contributors were IPR members. In 1945, six people, including Philip Jaffe, Amerasia's editor at the time, were arrested on charges of theft of government documents. Lockwood was questioned about his role at Amerasia, although he had resigned from the board when the magazine changed its focus from foreign relations to what Lockwood called a "different" slant. In 1951, Senator Joseph McCarthy resurrected the case when Senator Pat McCarran seized IPR files stored in a barn in Massachusetts. Included in the files was a letter Lockwood wrote in 1942, while Executive Secretary of the IPR. In the letter, Lockwood stated that Alger Hiss, an IPR board member, recommended Adlai Stevenson as a delegate to the IPR's Mont Tremblant Conference. McCarthy claimed that this letter implicated Stevenson with Hiss. In March of 1952, William Lockwood testified before McCarran's Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Internal Security in defense of the IPR.
As a result of the Senate charges that the IPR was a Communist front organization attempting to influence government policy, tax commissioner T. Coleman Andrews revoked the IPR's tax-exempt status in 1955. The IPR took the case to court in 1959, claiming that the security of all educational, religious and charitable organizations needed to be maintained, and in 1960 the court ruled in its favor and reinstated the tax-exempt status. Throughout the investigations, the IPR maintained that its purpose was to serve as an educational organization, engaged in scholarship and publishing in regard to the Far East, and in no way was it attempting to influence government policy. Although the IPR admitted that certain members of the organization may have been Communists, the organization itself did not condone Communism. Although vindicated in the tax case, the IPR was scarred by McCarthy's and McCarran's relentless accusations and investigations. As a result, its membership dwindled and its contributors and sponsors fled.
From 1943 until 1945, Lockwood served as an officer with the U.S. Army. He was in charge of research and analysis for the Office of Strategic Services unit attached to General Claire L. Chennault's 14th Air Force in Kunming, China, and eventually achieved the rank of major. After World War II, Lockwood spent a year in Washington with the State Department as the assistant chief of the Division of Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs. In 1946 he came to Princeton as the assistant director of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Promoted to Associate Professor in 1949 and full Professor in 1955, Lockwood focused on the political and economic development of Asia. Lockwood's courses included "Modern Asia: Political and Social Change" and a graduate seminar on "Political Development and U.S. Foreign Aid in Asia." He retired in 1971 after 25 years as a member of the Princeton faculty.
William Lockwood was a frequent contributor to scholarly journals, and author of a number of studies and reports on economic and political developments in the Far East. For ten years he was the Director of the Japan Society, and was also the Director of the Association for Asian Studies, serving as President during 1963-64. In the 1960s he served briefly as Chairman of the Editorial Board of the Princeton University Press and was Vice-President of Princeton-in-Asia, Inc. In 1953 he toured Asia as a consultant for the Ford Foundation and again in 1956-57 and 1962 on Ford and Fulbright research appointments. Named a McCosh Faculty Fellow in 1965, he returned to Japan once more to continue his studies of Asian politics and economic development. At the time of his death in December,1978, he was at work on a book about the development of democracy in Asia.
This collection was donated by William W. Lockwood in 1977 .
- Archival Appraisal Information:
No appraisal information is available.
- Processing Information:
This collection was processed by Christine A. Lutz in 1999 with support from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Finding aid written by Christine A. Lutz in 1999.
Access & Use
- Access Restrictions:
Collection is open for research use.
- Conditions for Reproduction and Use:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. For quotations that are fair use as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission to cite or publish is required. For those few instances beyond fair use, researchers are responsible for determining who may hold the copyright and obtaining approval from them. Researchers do not need anything further from the Mudd Library to move forward with their use.
- Credit this material:
William W. Lockwood Papers; Public Policy Papers, Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library
- Permanent URL:
- Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library65 Olden StreetPrinceton, NJ 08540, USA(609) 258-6345
- Subject Terms:
- Anti-Communist movements -- United States -- History -- 20hth century.
Subversive activities -- United States -- 20th century.
Textile industry -- Japan -- 20th century.
- Genre Terms:
- Institute of Pacific Relations. American Council.
Jessup, Philip C. (Philip Caryl), 1897-1986
Lattimore, Owen, 1900-1989
McCarran, Pat, 1876-1954
McCarthy, Joseph, 1908-1957
- China -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
China -- Economic policy -- 1949-1976.
China -- Foreign public opinion, American.
China -- Foreign relations -- United States -- 20th century.
Japan -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945.
Japan -- Economic policy -- 1945-
Japan -- Foreign public opinion, American.
Japan -- Foreign relations -- United States -- 20th century.
United States -- Foreign relations -- China -- 20th century.
United States -- Foreign relations -- Japan -- 20th century.