- Collection Overview
- Collection Description & Creator Information
- Access & Use
- Collection History
- Find Related Materials
- Hess, Harry Hammond, 1906-1969
- Princeton University. Library. Special Collections
- H. H. Hess Papers
- Manuscripts Division
- Permanent URL:
- 34 boxes
- Storage Note:
- Firestone Library (mss): Box 1-34
The H. H. Hess Papers consists of professional papers, correspondence, and related materials of the American geologist and educator Harry Hammond Hess (1906-1969).
Collection Description & Creator Information
Consists of Hess's papers, articles, reports, lecture notes, on-site field notes, notebooks, correspondence, committee materials, off-prints, unpublished papers, photographs, documents, seismological charts, slides, and printed matter, as well as some papers of others. The professional correspondence includes letters from colleagues in academe, the U.S. government, geological organizations, and scientific societies. Much of the material in the collection covers the varied scientific topics with which Hess was engaged-in particular, Hess's work with the National Academy of Sciences' Space Science Board, which advises the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on scientific matters. Hess participated in the academy-sponsored Mohole Project, which had the objective of drilling a hole through "Moho," the Mohorovicic seismic discontinuity separating the mantle of the earth from its crust. The collection also contains work Hess did for the Office of Naval Research of the Navy Department, including material relating to his theory of continental drift. Furthermore, there are materials pertaining to the Princeton Caribbean Research Project, organized and directed by Hess, which explored every aspect of Caribbean geology.
This collection is currently unprocessed.
- Collection Creator Biography:
Harry Hammond Hess, the son of Julian S. and Elizabeth (Engel) Hess, was born in New York City on 24 May 1906. Hess received a B. S. degree from Yale in 1927 and then went to Princeton to pursue a Ph.D. in geology (1932).
Through the years, Hess held an assortment of positions, primarily academic, relating to geology. After completing his degree at Princeton, he taught at Rutgers University for one year (1932-1933), and assisted with research in the geophysical laboratory in the Carnegie Institute of Washington, D.C. (1933-1934). In 1934, Hess joined the Princeton teaching faculty-gaining full professorship in 1948-a post he would maintain until his death. At Princeton, Hess served as the chairman of the Geology Department (1950-1966), and was the sixth Blair Professor of Geology (1964). In addition to his teaching at Princeton, Hess spent two years abroad as a visiting professor at Capetown University, South Africa (1949-1950), and Cambridge University, England (1965).
While a graduate student, Hess began research in the fields of marine geological and geophysical studies by measuring the earth's gravity field aboard a U. S. Navy submarine in the Caribbean. Hess was given a commission as lieutenant in the U. S. Naval Reserve as a means to facilitate his work on Navy subs during subsequent trips. When called to active duty during World War II in 1941, Hess was initially assigned to enemy submarine detection in New York City. He created a successful system to predict German submarine location and kept the New York waterways safe. Hess then went on to other assignments in the Pacific, including landing at Iwo Jima. While traveling on the "Cape Johnson," Hess conducted echo-sounding surveys and discovered submerged, flat-topped seamounts between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana Islands. He named his seamounts discovery "guyots," in homage to the founder of the Princeton geology department and the first Blair Professor, Arnold Guyot. After being discharged in 1946, Hess remained active in the Naval Reserve, gaining the level of rear admiral in 1961.
With the assistance of Princeton, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, several oil companies, and the governments of Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, Hess established the Caribbean Research Project in 1947. As a result of this project, Caribbean geology was investigated extensively, particularly by graduate students, who used their data as the basis for their Ph.D. dissertations. Hess also proposed the Mohole Project (1958), which had the objective of drilling a hole through the ocean's "Moho," the Mohorovicic seismic discontinuity separating the mantle of the earth, to take core samples, and he originated a theory of ocean-floor spreading and continental drift (early 1960s).
Hess's interest in rocks was not confirmed to the earth: He was the chairman of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (1962) and a collaborator with several committees of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (1963), including being involved with the first moon landing, which occurred only one month before his death.
In keeping with his varied scientific interests, Hess was a member of innumerable committees, societies, and organizations relating to geology, oceanography, and space science. Furthermore, he authored many articles and book chapters on these subjects.
Hess died of a heart attack on 25 August 1969, in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, while presiding at a Space Science Board conference. He was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery. Hess was survived by his wife of 35 years, Annette (Burns), and their two sons, George Burns and Frank Deming Mather.
The materials in this collection were a gift from Mrs. Annette Hess.
- Archival Appraisal Information:
No appraisal information is available.
- Processing Information:
Finding aid written by Ran Tao in 2004.
Access & Use
- Access Restrictions:
Collection is open for research use.
- Conditions for Reproduction and Use:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. No further photoduplication of copies of material in the collection can be made when Princeton University Library does not own the original. Inquiries regarding publishing material from the collection should be directed to RBSC Public Services staff through the Ask Us! form. The library has no information on the status of literary rights in the collection and researchers are responsible for determining any questions of copyright.
- Credit this material:
H. H. Hess Papers; Manuscripts Division, Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library
- Permanent URL:
- Firestone LibraryOne Washington RoadPrinceton, NJ 08544, USA(609) 258-3184
- Subject Terms:
- Continental drift.
Geological research -- Caribbean Area -- 20th century.
Geologists -- New Jersey -- Princeton -- 20th century
Geology -- Caribbean Area -- 20th century.
Geology -- Caribbean Area -- Field work -- 20th century.
Geology -- Study and teaching -- New Jersey -- Princeton -- 20th century.
Seismological research -- United States -- 20th century.
- Genre Terms:
- United States
International Geological Congress.
Geological society of America
National Academy of Sciences U.S.