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Collection Overview

Bayard, Ann Caroline, 1797-1871
Bayard Family Papers
Manuscripts Division
Permanent URL:
3 boxes and 1.2 linear feet
Storage Note:
  • Firestone Library (scamss): Box 1-3


The Bayard Family Papers, dating from 1801 to 1915, document Ann Caroline Bayard (1797-1871) and her politically active family who lived and worked in the mid-Atlantic area. Her father, James Ashton Bayard (1767-1815); two brothers, Richard Henry Bayard (1796-1868) and James Asheton Bayard (1799-1880); and nephew, Thomas Francis Bayard (1828-1898) served in the United States Senate and their acquaintances appear to have been involved in the family's social circles, of which Ann Caroline Bayard was an active and important part. This collection consists of correspondence to Ann Caroline Bayard and other family members, legal records, photographs, and genealogical information regarding the Bayard family.

Collection Description & Creator Information

Scope and Contents

The Bayard Family Papers, 1801-1915, document Ann Caroline Bayard (1797-1871) and her politically active family and are arranged in five series, "Correspondence," "Legal Records," "Photographs," "Miscellaneous Files and Ephemera," and "Newspaper Clippings."

"Correspondence" includes letters to Ann Caroline Bayard and to other members of her family. The letters "To Ann Caroline Bayard" are arranged alphabetically by author of the letter. These letters address a range of topics including family, books, education, abolition, and politics. Her friends' letters contain friendly gossip, discussions of travels and notable people met, including Washington Irving (a friend of Caroline Bollman). A letter from Sarah Lowndes, in response to a query by Ann Caroline Bayard, provides her justification for the institution of slavery in 1820. Ann Caroline Bayard also corresponded with her sisters-in-law Mary S. Carroll Bayard and Tryphena Cady Bayard. Of note, Tryphena Bayard mentions her sister, Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Family and friends, particularly Henry Clay (1777-1852) and Louis McLane (1786-1857), wrote to Ann Caroline Bayard regarding politics. Letters from Henry Clay discuss abolition, politics, and speeches. In a particularly revealing letter, Clay's feelings on his defeat in the 1844 presidential election are discussed. She was equally respected by Louis McLane, a Delaware politician. Her father and her brother Richard Henry Bayard wrote from Washington and these letters, along with those of Clay and McLane, discuss the writers' opinions of Rufus King (1755-1827), Ninian Edwards (1775-1833), Mr. Pinckney, Mr. Randolph, and Joseph Bringhurst (1767-1834), to name only a few.

The letters "To Others" include many members of Ann Caroline Bayard's family, but center largely on Emma Dixon Bayard and were written mostly by her family. There are also a number of letters to Ann Bayard, James Asheton Bayard, and Mary S. Bayard. Letters to Shipley relations are also included. These letters are arranged alphabetically by recipient of the letters.

"Legal Records" include court records; land records possibly relating to the U.S. Supreme Court Case, "Henry M. Bayard, Plaintiff in Error, v. Israel Lombard and Charles O. Whitmore;" wills and letters regarding wills; and records that are not immediately connected to a specific individual.

"Photographs" relate mainly to the descendents of Henry Milligan and Emma Dixon Bayard. There are also photographs of Clark's Creek, Camp Shiley, and "Victoria" and several photographs of individuals who are either unidentified on the photographs or their connections to the Bayard family are unknown.

"Miscellaneous Files and Ephemera" includes genealogical information regarding the Bayard family, clippings of hair from twelve family members, and prayers, hymns, and poems. Finally, "Newspaper Clippings" contains clippings on Bayard family members, particularly obituaries. When these individuals are represented only by an obituary, it is noted.

This collection provides a unique glimpse into the family and social circles of Ann Caroline Bayard, an educated and politically connected woman during the 19th century. It is important to note, however, that there is almost nothing of her own creation in this collection; instead, her role in her world is revealed in the writings of others.

Collection Creator Biography:

Bayard, Ann Caroline, 1797-1871

Ann Caroline Bayard (1797-1871), a member of the prominent Philadelphia and Delaware Bayard family, was raised in an environment of politics. Her father, James Asheton Bayard (1767-1815); two brothers, Richard Henry Bayard (1796-1868) and James Asheton Bayard (1799-1880); and nephew, Thomas Francis Bayard (1828-1898) served in the United States Senate and their acquaintances appear to have been involved in the family's social circles, of which Ann Caroline Bayard was an active part.

Little is known about Ann Caroline Bayard, but it appears that she was educated at Mrs. Mortimer's Ladies' Seminary in Philadelphia. Later in life, she and her brother, Henry Milligan Bayard, operated the Bayard family's ironworks, Victoria Furnace, which was located on Clark's Creek northeast of Dauphin, Pennsylvania.

Bayard's circle of friends included Caroline Bollman, daughter of Justus Erich Bollman; Martha M. A. Levy (1798-1889), daughter of Judge Moses Levy and niece of Louis McLane; Sarah P. Bache, granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin and wife of Charles Hodge who served as president of the Princeton Theological Seminary; and Charlotte Mortimer, who married Dr. Ithemer B. Crawe. Letters between these young women are indicative of their progressive families--all were educated, read and exchanged views on books, and were involved with notable individuals in the literary and political worlds. Bayard corresponded with many notable politicians, including Louis McLane and Henry Clay.

Many members of Ann Caroline Bayard's immediate family were notable. Her father, James Asheton Bayard (1767-1815), was a 1784 College of New Jersey graduate, a lawyer in Wilmington, a U.S. representative from Delaware at-large from 1797 to 1803, and a United States senator from Delaware from 1804 to 1813. A Federalist, Bayard helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Her mother, Ann Bassett Bayard, was the daughter of Chief Justice Richard Bassett. With this example of public service, several of John and Ann Bayard's children, particularly their sons Richard Henry, James Asheton, and Edward, were motivated to serve the public.

Richard Henry Bayard (1796-1868) graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1814; served as mayor of Wilmington from 1832 to 1835; a U.S. Senator from Delaware from 1836 to 1839 and from 1840 to 1845; Chief Justice of Delaware from 1839 to 1841; Brigadier General in the Delaware State Militia in 1846; and the American charge d'affaires in Belgium from 1850 to 1853. He married Mary Sophia Carroll (1804-1886), and both corresponded with Henry Clay. James Asheton Bayard (1799-1880) practiced law in Wilmington and served as U.S. District Attorney for Delaware from 1838 to 1843 and U.S. Senator from Delaware from 1851 to 1964 and 1867 to 1869. He married Ann Francis (1802-1864) and they were the parents of five children, including Thomas Francis Bayard who served in the U.S. Senate from 1869 to 1885; as Secretary of State under President Grover Cleveland, from 1885 to 1889; and ambassador to England from 1893 to 1897, and Edward Bayard, a lawyer and homeopathic physician, married Tryphena Cady, older sister of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Another son, Henry Milligan Bayard, married Emma Dixon.

Collection History


Purchase, 2012 .


No appraisal information is available.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Holly Mengel in 2012. Finding aid written by Holly Mengel in 2012.

Access & Use

Conditions Governing Access

The collection is open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Single copies may be made for research purposes. To cite or publish quotations that fall within Fair Use, as defined under U. S. Copyright Law, no permission is required. For instances beyond Fair Use, it is the responsibility of the researcher to determine whether any permissions related to copyright, privacy, publicity, or any other rights are necessary for their intended use of the Library's materials, and to obtain all required permissions from any existing rights holders, if they have not already done so. Princeton University Library's Special Collections does not charge any permission or use fees for the publication of images of materials from our collections, nor does it require researchers to obtain its permission for said use. The department does request that its collections be properly cited and images credited. More detailed information can be found on the Copyright, Credit and Citations Guidelines page on our website. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us through the Ask Us! form.

Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements

For preservation reasons, original analog and digital media may not be read or played back in the reading room. Users may visually inspect physical media but may not remove it from its enclosure. All analog audiovisual media must be digitized to preservation-quality standards prior to use. Audiovisual digitization requests are processed by an approved third-party vendor. Please note, the transfer time required can be as little as several weeks to as long as several months and there may be financial costs associated with the process. Requests should be directed through the Ask Us Form.

Credit this material:

Bayard Family Papers; Manuscripts Division, Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library

Permanent URL:
Firestone Library
One Washington Road
Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
(609) 258-3184
Storage Note:
  • Firestone Library (scamss): Box 1-3

Find More

Related Materials

Delaware Historical Society: Bayard, James A. (1779-1880), family papers, 1848-1864 (.25 linear foot); Bayard, Thomas F. (1828-1898), papers, 1867-1897 (2 volumes and .5 linear foot); and Bayard family papers, 1762-1864 (1 linear foot).

Library of Congress: James A. Bayard and Richard H. Bayard papers, 1797-1885 (MSS 12070) and Thomas F. Bayard papers, 1780-1899, bulk 1860-1898 (MSS 12088).

Genre Terms:
Correspondence -- 19th century
Photographs -- 19th century.
Bayard family
Bayard, James A. (James Asheton), 1767-1815
Bayard, James A. (James Asheton), 1799-1880
Bayard, Richard H. (Richard Henry), 1796-1868
Bayard, Thomas F. (Thomas Francis), 1828-1898
Clay, Henry, 1777-1852.
Hodge, Sarah Bache
McLane, Louis, 1786-1857
Delaware -- Politics and government -- 19th century.